Automation Trigger


Triggers are what starts the processing of an automation rule. When any of the automation’s triggers becomes true (trigger fires), Home Assistant will validate the conditions, if any, and call the action.

An automation can be triggered by an event, with a certain entity state, at a given time, and more. These can be specified directly or more flexible via templates. It is also possible to specify multiple triggers for one automation.

Trigger ID

All triggers can be assigned an optional id. If the ID is omitted, it will instead be set to the index of the trigger. The id can be referenced from trigger conditions and actions. The id does not have to be unique for each trigger, and it can be used to group similar triggers for use later in the automation (i.e., several triggers of different types that should all turn some entity on).

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: event
      event_type: "MY_CUSTOM_EVENT"
      id: "custom_event"
    - platform: mqtt
      topic: "living_room/switch/ac"
      id: "ac_on"
    - platform: state  # This trigger will be assigned id="2"
      entity_id:
        - device_tracker.paulus
        - device_tracker.anne_therese
      to: "home"

Trigger variables

There are two different types of variables available for triggers. Both work like script level variables.

The first variant allows you to define variables that will be set when the trigger fires. The variables will be able to use templates and have access to the trigger variable.

The second variant is setting variables that are available when attaching a trigger when the trigger can contain templated values. These are defined using the trigger_variables key at an automation level. These variables can only contain limited templates. The triggers will not re-apply if the value of the template changes. Trigger variables are a feature meant to support using blueprint inputs in triggers.

automation:
  trigger_variables:
    my_event: example_event
  trigger:
    - platform: event
      # Able to use `trigger_variables`
      event_type: "{{ my_event }}"
      # These variables are evaluated and set when this trigger is triggered
      variables:
        name: "{{ trigger.event.data.name }}"

Event trigger

Fires when an event is being received. Events are the raw building blocks of Home Assistant. You can match events on just the event name or also require specific event data or context to be present.

Events can be fired by integrations or via the API. There is no limitation to the types. A list of built-in events can be found here.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: event
      event_type: "MY_CUSTOM_EVENT"
      # optional
      event_data:
        mood: happy
      context:
        user_id:
        # any of these will match
          - "MY_USER_ID"
          - "ANOTHER_USER_ID"

It is also possible to listen for multiple events at once. This is useful for event that contain no, or similar, data and contexts.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: event
      event_type:
        - automation_reloaded
        - scene_reloaded

It’s also possible to use limited templates in the event_type, event_data and context options.

The event_type, event_data and context templates are only evaluated when setting up the trigger, they will not be reevaluated for every event.

automation:
  trigger_variables:
    sub_event: ABC
    node: ac
    value: on
  trigger:
    - platform: event
      event_type: "{{ 'MY_CUSTOM_EVENT_' ~ sub_event }}"

Home Assistant trigger

Fires when Home Assistant starts up or shuts down.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: homeassistant
      # Event can also be 'shutdown'
      event: start

MQTT trigger

Fires when a specific message is received on given MQTT topic. Optionally can match on the payload being sent over the topic. The default payload encoding is ‘utf-8’. For images and other byte payloads use encoding: '' to disable payload decoding completely.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: mqtt
      topic: "living_room/switch/ac"
      # Optional
      payload: "on"
      encoding: "utf-8"

The payload option can be combined with a value_template to process the message received on the given MQTT topic before matching it with the payload. The trigger in the example below will trigger only when the message received on living_room/switch/ac is valid JSON, with a key state which has the value "on".

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: mqtt
      topic: "living_room/switch/ac"
      payload: "on"
      value_template: "{{ value_json.state }}"

It’s also possible to use limited templates in the topic and payload options.

The topic and payload templates are only evaluated when setting up the trigger, they will not be re-evaluated for every incoming MQTT message.

automation:
  trigger_variables:
    room: "living_room"
    node: "ac"
    value: "on"
  trigger:
    - platform: mqtt
      topic: "{{ room ~ '/switch/' ~ node}}"
      # Optional
      payload: "{{ 'state:' ~ value }}"
      encoding: "utf-8"

Numeric state trigger

Fires when the numeric value of an entity’s state (or attribute’s value if using the attribute property, or the calculated value if using the value_template property) crosses (and only when crossing) a given threshold. On state change of a specified entity, attempts to parse the state as a number and fires if the value is changing from above to below or from below to above the given threshold.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: numeric_state
      entity_id: sensor.temperature
      # If given, will trigger when the value of the given attribute for the given entity changes..
      attribute: attribute_name
      # ..or alternatively, will trigger when the value given by this evaluated template changes.
      value_template: "{{ state.attributes.value - 5 }}"
      # At least one of the following required
      above: 17
      below: 25
      # If given, will trigger when the condition has been true for X time; you can also use days and milliseconds.
      for:
        hours: 1
        minutes: 10
        seconds: 5

When the attribute option is specified the trigger is compared to the given attribute instead of the state of the entity.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: numeric_state
      entity_id: climate.kitchen
      attribute: current_temperature
      above: 23

More dynamic and complex calculations can be done with value_template.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: numeric_state
      entity_id: climate.kitchen
      value_template: "{{ state.attributes.current_temperature - state.attributes.temperature_set_point }}"
      above: 3
Listing above and below together means the numeric_state has to be between the two values. In the example above, the trigger would fire a single time if a numeric_state goes into the 17.1-24.9 range (above 17 and below 25). It will only fire again, once it has left the defined range and enters it again.

Number helpers (input_number entities), number and sensor entities that contain a numeric value, can be used in the above and below thresholds, making the trigger more dynamic, like:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: numeric_state
      entity_id: sensor.outside_temperature
      # Other entity ids can be specified for above and/or below thresholds
      above: sensor.inside_temperature

The for: can also be specified as HH:MM:SS like this:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: numeric_state
      entity_id: sensor.temperature
      # At least one of the following required
      above: 17
      below: 25

      # If given, will trigger when condition has been for X time.
      for: "01:10:05"

You can also use templates in the for option.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: numeric_state
      entity_id:
        - sensor.temperature_1
        - sensor.temperature_2
      above: 80
      for:
        minutes: "{{ states('input_number.high_temp_min')|int }}"
        seconds: "{{ states('input_number.high_temp_sec')|int }}"
  action:
    - service: persistent_notification.create
      data:
        message: >
          {{ trigger.to_state.name }} too high for {{ trigger.for }}!

The for template(s) will be evaluated when an entity changes as specified.

Use of the for option will not survive Home Assistant restart or the reload of automations. During restart or reload, automations that were awaiting for the trigger to pass, are reset.

If for your use case this is undesired, you could consider using the automation to set an input_datetime to the desired time and then use that input_datetime as an automation trigger to perform the desired actions at the set time.

State trigger

Fires when the state of any of given entities changes. If only entity_id is given, the trigger will fire for all state changes, even if only state attributes change. If at least one of from, to, not_from, or not_to are given, the trigger will fire on any matching state change, but not if only attributes change. To trigger on all state changes, but not on changed attributes, set at least one of from, to, not_from, or not_to to null.

The values you see in your overview will often not be the same as the actual state of the entity. For instance, the overview may show Connected when the underlying entity is actually on. You should check the state of the entity by looking in the States menu under Developer tools.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id:
        - device_tracker.paulus
        - device_tracker.anne_therese
      # Optional
      from: "not_home"
      # Optional
      to: "home"

It’s possible to give a list of from states or to states:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id: vacuum.test
      from:
        - "cleaning"
        - "returning"
      to: "error"

Trigger on all state changes, but not attributes by setting to to null:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id: vacuum.test
      to:

The not_from and not_to options are the counter parts of from and to. They can be used to trigger on state changes that are not the specified state. This can be useful to trigger on all state changes, except specific ones.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id: vacuum.test
      not_from:
        - "unknown"
        - "unavailable"
      to: "on"

You cannot use from and not_from at the same time. The same applies to to and not_to.

Triggering on attribute changes

When the attribute option is specified, the trigger only fires when the specified attribute changes. Changes to other attributes or the state are ignored.

For example, this trigger only fires when the boiler has been heating for 10 minutes:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id: climate.living_room
      attribute: hvac_action
      to: "heating"
      for: "00:10:00"

This trigger fires whenever the boiler’s hvac_action attribute changes:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id: climate.living_room
      attribute: hvac_action

Holding a state or attribute

You can use for to have the state trigger only fire if the state holds for some time.

This example fires, when the entity state changed to "on" and holds that state for 30 seconds:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id: light.office
      # Must stay "on" for 30 seconds
      to: "on"
      for: "00:00:30"

Please note, that when holding a state, changes to attributes are ignored and do not cancel the hold time.

You can also fire the trigger when the state value changed from a specific state, but hasn’t returned to that state value for the specified time.

This can be useful, e.g., checking if a media player hasn’t turned “off” for the time specified, but doesn’t care about “playing” or “paused”.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id: media_player.kitchen
      # Not "off" for 30 minutes
      from: "off"
      for: "00:30:00"

Please note, that when using from, to and for, only the value of the to option is considered for the time specified.

In this example, the trigger fires if the state value of the entity remains the same for for the time specified, regardless of the current state value.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id: media_player.kitchen
      # The media player remained in its current state for 1 hour
      for: "01:00:00"

You can also use templates in the for option.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id:
        - device_tracker.paulus
        - device_tracker.anne_therese
      to: "home"
      for:
        minutes: "{{ states('input_number.lock_min')|int }}"
        seconds: "{{ states('input_number.lock_sec')|int }}"
  action:
    - service: lock.lock
      target:
        entity_id: lock.my_place

The for template(s) will be evaluated when an entity changes as specified.

Use quotes around your values for from and to to avoid the YAML parser from interpreting values as booleans.

Use of the for option will not survive Home Assistant restart or the reload of automations. During restart or reload, automations that were awaiting for the trigger to pass, are reset.

If for your use case this is undesired, you could consider using the automation to set an input_datetime to the desired time and then use that input_datetime as an automation trigger to perform the desired actions at the set time.

Sun trigger

Sunset / Sunrise trigger

Fires when the sun is setting or rising, i.e., when the sun elevation reaches 0°.

An optional time offset can be given to have it fire a set time before or after the sun event (e.g., 45 minutes before sunset).

Since the duration of twilight is different throughout the year, it is recommended to use sun elevation triggers instead of sunset or sunrise with a time offset to trigger automations during dusk or dawn.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: sun
      # Possible values: sunset, sunrise
      event: sunset
      # Optional time offset. This example will trigger 45 minutes before sunset.
      offset: "-00:45:00"

Sun elevation trigger

Sometimes you may want more granular control over an automation than simply sunset or sunrise and specify an exact elevation of the sun. This can be used to layer automations to occur as the sun lowers on the horizon or even after it is below the horizon. This is also useful when the “sunset” event is not dark enough outside and you would like the automation to run later at a precise solar angle instead of the time offset such as turning on exterior lighting. For most automations intended to run during dusk or dawn, a number between 0° and -6° is suitable; -4° is used in this example:

automation:
  - alias: "Exterior Lighting on when dark outside"
    trigger:
      - platform: numeric_state
        entity_id: sun.sun
        attribute: elevation
        # Can be a positive or negative number
        below: -4.0
    action:
      - service: switch.turn_on
        target:
          entity_id: switch.exterior_lighting

If you want to get more precise, you can use this solar calculator, which will help you estimate what the solar elevation will be at any specific time. Then from this, you can select from the defined twilight numbers.

Although the actual amount of light depends on weather, topography and land cover, they are defined as:

  • Civil twilight: 0° > Solar angle > -6°

    This is what is meant by twilight for the average person: Under clear weather conditions, civil twilight approximates the limit at which solar illumination suffices for the human eye to clearly distinguish terrestrial objects. Enough illumination renders artificial sources unnecessary for most outdoor activities.

  • Nautical twilight: -6° > Solar angle > -12°

  • Astronomical twilight: -12° > Solar angle > -18°

A very thorough explanation of this is available in the Wikipedia article about the Twilight.

Tag trigger

Fires when a tag is scanned. For example, a NFC tag is scanned using the Home Assistant Companion mobile application.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: tag
      tag_id: A7-6B-90-5F

Additionally, you can also only trigger if a card is scanned by a specific device/scanner by setting the device_id:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: tag
      tag_id: A7-6B-90-5F
      device_id: 0e19cd3cf2b311ea88f469a7512c307d

Or trigger on multiple possible devices for multiple tags:

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: tag
      tag_id:
        - "A7-6B-90-5F"
        - "A7-6B-15-AC"
      device_id:
        - 0e19cd3cf2b311ea88f469a7512c307d
        - d0609cb25f4a13922bb27d8f86e4c821

Template trigger

Template triggers work by evaluating a template when any of the recognized entities change state. The trigger will fire if the state change caused the template to render ‘true’ (a non-zero number or any of the strings true, yes, on, enable) when it was previously ‘false’ (anything else).

This is achieved by having the template result in a true boolean expression (for example {{ is_state('device_tracker.paulus', 'home') }}) or by having the template render true (example below).

With template triggers you can also evaluate attribute changes by using is_state_attr (like {{ is_state_attr('climate.living_room', 'away_mode', 'off') }})

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: template
      value_template: "{% if is_state('device_tracker.paulus', 'home') %}true{% endif %}"

      # If given, will trigger when template remains true for X time.
      for: "00:01:00"

You can also use templates in the for option.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: template
      value_template: "{{ is_state('device_tracker.paulus', 'home') }}"
      for:
        minutes: "{{ states('input_number.minutes')|int(0) }}"

The for template(s) will be evaluated when the value_template becomes ‘true’.

Templates that do not contain an entity will be rendered once per minute.

Use of the for option will not survive Home Assistant restart or the reload of automations. During restart or reload, automations that were awaiting for the trigger to pass, are reset.

If for your use case this is undesired, you could consider using the automation to set an input_datetime to the desired time and then use that input_datetime as an automation trigger to perform the desired actions at the set time.

Time trigger

The time trigger is configured to fire once a day at a specific time, or at a specific time on a specific date. There are three allowed formats:

Time String

A string that represents a time to fire on each day. Can be specified as HH:MM or HH:MM:SS. If the seconds are not specified, :00 will be used.

automation:
  - trigger:
    - platform: time
      # Military time format. This trigger will fire at 3:32 PM
      at: "15:32:00"

Input Datetime

The Entity ID of an Input Datetime.

has_date has_time Description
true true Will fire at specified date & time.
true false Will fire at midnight on specified date.
false true Will fire once a day at specified time.
automation:
  - trigger:
      - platform: state
        entity_id: binary_sensor.motion
        to: "on"
    action:
      - service: climate.turn_on
        target:
          entity_id: climate.office
      - service: input_datetime.set_datetime
        target:
          entity_id: input_datetime.turn_off_ac
        data:
          datetime: >
            {{ (now().timestamp() + 2*60*60)
               | timestamp_custom('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S') }}
  - trigger:
      - platform: time
        at: input_datetime.turn_off_ac
    action:
      - service: climate.turn_off
        target:
          entity_id: climate.office

Sensors of datetime device class

The Entity ID of a sensor with the “timestamp” device class.

automation:
  - trigger:
      - platform: time
        at: sensor.phone_next_alarm
    action:
      - service: light.turn_on
        target:
          entity_id: light.bedroom

Multiple Times

Multiple times can be provided in a list. Both formats can be intermixed.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: time
      at:
        - input_datetime.leave_for_work
        - "18:30:00"

Time pattern trigger

With the time pattern trigger, you can match if the hour, minute or second of the current time matches a specific value. You can prefix the value with a / to match whenever the value is divisible by that number. You can specify * to match any value (when using the web interface this is required, the fields cannot be left empty).

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: time_pattern
      # Matches every hour at 5 minutes past whole
      minutes: 5

automation 2:
  trigger:
    - platform: time_pattern
      # Trigger once per minute during the hour of 3
      hours: "3"
      minutes: "*"

automation 3:
  trigger:
    - platform: time_pattern
      # You can also match on interval. This will match every 5 minutes
      minutes: "/5"

Do not prefix numbers with a zero - using '01' instead of '1' for example will result in errors.

Webhook trigger

Webhook trigger fires when a web request is made to the webhook endpoint: /api/webhook/<webhook_id>. The webhook endpoint is created automatically when you set it as the webhook_id in an automation trigger.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: webhook
      webhook_id: "some_hook_id"

You can run this automation by sending an HTTP POST request to http://your-home-assistant:8123/api/webhook/some_hook_id. Here is an example using the curl command line program, with an example data payload:

curl -X POST -d '{ "key": "value" }' https://your-home-assistant:8123/api/webhook/some_hook_id

Webhooks support HTTP POST, PUT, and HEAD requests; POST requests are recommended. HTTP GET requests are not supported.

Remember to use an HTTPS URL if you’ve secured your Home Assistant installation with SSL/TLS.

Note that a given webhook can only be used in one automation at a time. That is, only one automation trigger can use a specific webhook ID.

Webhook data

You can send a data payload, either as encoded form data or JSON data. The payload is available in an automation template as either trigger.json or trigger.data. URL query parameters are available in the template as trigger.query.

In order to reference trigger.json, the Content-Type header must be specified with a value of application/json, e.g.:

curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" https://your-home-assistant:8123/api/webhook/some_hook_id

Webhook security

Webhook endpoints don’t require authentication, other than knowing a valid webhook ID. Security best practices for webhooks include:

  • Do not use webhooks to trigger automations that are destructive, or that can create safety issues. For example, do not use a webhook to unlock a lock, or open a garage door.
  • Treat a webhook ID like a password: use a unique, non-guessable value, and keep it secret.
  • Do not copy-and-paste webhook IDs from public sources, including blueprints. Always create your own.

Zone trigger

Zone trigger fires when an entity is entering or leaving the zone. The entity can be either a person, or a device_tracker. For zone automation to work, you need to have setup a device tracker platform that supports reporting GPS coordinates. This includes GPS Logger, the OwnTracks platform and the iCloud platform.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: zone
      entity_id: person.paulus
      zone: zone.home
      # Event is either enter or leave
      event: enter # or "leave"

Geolocation trigger

Geolocation trigger fires when an entity is appearing in or disappearing from a zone. Entities that are created by a Geolocation platform support reporting GPS coordinates. Because entities are generated and removed by these platforms automatically, the entity ID normally cannot be predicted. Instead, this trigger requires the definition of a source, which is directly linked to one of the Geolocation platforms.

This isn’t for use with device_tracker entities. For those look above at the zone trigger.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: geo_location
      source: nsw_rural_fire_service_feed
      zone: zone.bushfire_alert_zone
      # Event is either enter or leave
      event: enter # or "leave"

Device triggers

Device triggers encompass a set of events that are defined by an integration. This includes, for example, state changes of sensors as well as button events from remotes. MQTT device triggers are set up through autodiscovery.

In contrast to state triggers, device triggers are tied to a device and not necessarily an entity. To use a device trigger, set up an automation through the browser frontend. If you would like to use a device trigger for an automation that is not managed through the browser frontend, you can copy the YAML from the trigger widget in the frontend and paste it into your automation’s trigger list.

Calendar trigger

Calendar trigger fires when a Calendar event starts or ends, allowing much more flexible automations that using the Calendar entity state which only supports a single event start at a time.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: calendar
      # Possible values: start, end
      event: start
      # The calendar entity_id
      entity_id: calendar.light_schedule

See the Calendar integration for more details on event triggers and the additional event data available for use by an automation.

Multiple triggers

It is possible to specify multiple triggers for the same rule. To do so just prefix the first line of each trigger with a dash (-) and indent the next lines accordingly. Whenever one of the triggers fires, processing of your automation rule begins.

automation:
  trigger:
    # first trigger
    - platform: time_pattern
      minutes: 5
      # our second trigger is the sunset
    - platform: sun
      event: sunset

Multiple Entity IDs for the same Trigger

It is possible to specify multiple entities for the same trigger. To do so add multiple entities using a nested list. The trigger will fire and start, processing your automation each time the trigger is true for any entity listed.

automation:
  trigger:
    - platform: state
      entity_id:
        - sensor.one
        - sensor.two
        - sensor.three

Disabling a trigger

Every individual trigger in an automation can be disabled, without removing it. To do so, add enabled: false to the trigger. For example:

# Example script with a disabled trigger
automation:
  trigger:
    # This trigger will not trigger, as it is disabled.
    # This automation does not run when the sun is set.
    - enabled: false
      platform: sun
      event: sunset

    # This trigger will fire, as it is not disabled.
    - platform: time
      at: "15:32:00"