Automation Templating


In Home Assistant 0.19 we introduced a new powerful feature: variables in scripts and automations. This makes it possible to adjust your condition and action based on the information of the trigger.

The trigger data made is available during template rendering as the trigger variable.

# Example configuration.yaml entries
automation:
  trigger:
    platform: state
    entity_id: device_tracker.paulus
  action:
    service: notify.notify
    data:
      message: >
        Paulus just changed from {{ trigger.from_state.state }}
        to {{ trigger.to_state.state }}

automation 2:
  trigger:
    platform: mqtt
    topic: /notify/+
  action:
    service: >
      notify.{{ trigger.topic.split('/')[-1] }}
    data:
      message: '{{ trigger.payload }}'

automation 3:
  trigger:
    # Multiple entities for which you want to perform the same action.
    - platform: state
      entity_id:
        - light.bedroom_closet
        - light.kiddos_closet
        - light.linen_closet
      to: 'on'
      # Trigger when someone leaves one of those lights on for 10 minutes.
      for: '00:10:00'
  action:
    - service: light.turn_off
      data:
        # Turn off whichever entity triggered the automation.
        entity_id: "{{ trigger.entity_id }}"

Important Template Rules

There are a few very important rules to remember when writing automation templates:

  1. You must surround single-line templates with double quotes (") or single quotes (').
  2. It is advised that you prepare for undefined variables by using if ... is not none or the default filter, or both.
  3. It is advised that when comparing numbers, you convert the number(s) to a float or an int by using the respective filter.
  4. While the float and int filters do allow a default fallback value if the conversion is unsuccessful, they do not provide the ability to catch undefined variables.

Remembering these simple rules will help save you from many headaches and endless hours of frustration when using automation templates.

Trigger State Object

Knowing how to access the state object of a trigger entity can be useful in automations. Here are a few ways to access the state, numeric_state and template triggers:

  • trigger.from_state will return the previous state object of the entity.
  • trigger.to_state will return the new state object that triggered trigger.
  • states[trigger.to_state.domain][trigger.to_state.object_id] will return the current state object of the entity.

Be aware that if you reference a trigger state object in templates of automation action, attempting to test that automation by calling the automation.trigger service or by clicking EXECUTE in the More Info box for the automation will not work. This is because the trigger state object doesn’t exist in those contexts. One way to test automations like these is to manually check that the templates work as expected by pasting them in Developer Tools > Template together with your trigger’s definition like:

{% set trigger={'to_state':{'state': 'heat'}} %}
{% set option = trigger.to_state.state %}
{{ 'on' if option == 'heat' else 'off' }}

Available Trigger Data

The following tables show the available trigger data per platform.

Event

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: event.
trigger.event Event object that matched.
trigger.event.data Optional data

MQTT

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: mqtt.
trigger.topic Topic that received payload.
trigger.payload Payload.
trigger.payload_json Dictonary of the JSON parsed payload.
trigger.qos QOS of payload.

Numeric State

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: numeric_state
trigger.entity_id Entity ID that we observe.
trigger.below The below threshold, if any.
trigger.above The above threshold, if any.
trigger.from_state The previous state object of the entity.
trigger.to_state The new state object that triggered trigger.
trigger.for Timedelta object how long state has met above/below criteria, if any.

State

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: state
trigger.entity_id Entity ID that we observe.
trigger.from_state The previous state object of the entity.
trigger.to_state The new state object that triggered trigger.
trigger.for Timedelta object how long state has been to state, if any.

Sun

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: sun
trigger.event The event that just happened: sunset or sunrise.
trigger.offset Timedelta object with offset to the event, if any.

Template

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: template
trigger.entity_id Entity ID that caused change.
trigger.from_state Previous state object of entity that caused change.
trigger.to_state New state object of entity that caused template to change.
trigger.for Timedelta object how long state has been to state, if any.

Time

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: time
trigger.now DateTime object that triggered the time trigger.

Time Pattern

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: time_pattern
trigger.now DateTime object that triggered the time_pattern trigger.

Webhook

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: webhook
trigger.webhook_id The webhook ID that was triggered.
trigger.json The JSON data of the request (if it had a JSON content type).
trigger.data The form data of the request (if it had a form data content type).

Zone

Template variable Data
trigger.platform Hardcoded: zone
trigger.entity_id Entity ID that we are observing.
trigger.from_state Previous state object of the entity.
trigger.to_state New state object of the entity.
trigger.zone State object of zone
trigger.event Event that trigger observed: enter or leave.