Install Home Assistant Operating System
- VirtualBox (.vdi)
After downloading, decompress the image. If the image comes in a ZIP file, for example, unzip it.
Follow this guide if you already are running a supported virtual machine hypervisor. If you are not familiar with virtual machines, install Home Assistant OS directly on a Home Assistant Yellow, a Raspberry Pi, or an ODROID.
Load the appliance image into your virtual machine hypervisor. (Note: You are free to assign as much resources as you wish to the VM, please assign enough based on your add-on needs).
Minimum recommended assignments:
- 2 GB RAM
- 32 GB Storage
All these can be extended if your usage calls for more resources.
- Create a new virtual machine.
- Select type Linux and version Linux 2.6 / 3.x / 4.x (64-bit).
- Select Use an existing virtual hard disk file, select the unzipped VDI file from above.
- Edit the Settings of the VM and go to System > Motherboard. Select Enable EFI.
- Then go to Network > Adapter 1. Choose Bridged Adapter and choose your network adapter.
By default, VirtualBox does not free up unused disk space. To automatically shrink the vdi disk image
discard option must be enabled using your host machine’s terminal:
VBoxManage storageattach <VM name> --storagectl "SATA" --port 0 --device 0 --nonrotational on --discard on
More details can be found about the command can be found here.
- Download the .qcow2 image above and decompress it. (Extract all in Windows)
- Store the image in the isos share on your server.
- Make sure under Settings > VM manager, Enable VMs is enabled.
- Create a new virtual machine: VMS > Add VM.
- Select type Linux and give the VM a name and a description.
- Select the CPU cores you want to let the VM use and give it some memory.
- Under Primary vDisk Location, select Manual and then select the qcow2 image.
- Select your keyboard language under VM Console Keyboard.
- Select br0 under Network Source.
- Select virtio under Network model.
- Select any USB-devices that you want to pass through to Home Assistant, such as Zigbee- or Z-Wave controllers.
- Deselect Start VM after creation.
- Select Create.
- Select the name of your new VM and select the capacity number for your disk. Here, you can expand the disk to whatever your needs are. The default is 32 GB.
- Select the icon of your new VM and select start with console (VNC).
- Create a new virtual machine in
- Select Import existing disk image, provide the path to the QCOW2 image above.
- Choose Generic Default for the operating system.
- Check the box for Customize configuration before install.
- Under Network Selection, select your bridge.
- Under customization select Overview > Firmware > UEFI x86_64: …. Make sure to select a non-secureboot version of OVMF (does not contain the word
secboot, etc.), e.g.,
- Click Add Hardware (bottom left), and select Channel.
- Select device type: unix.
- Select name: org.qemu.guest_agent.0.
- Finally, select Begin Installation (upper left corner).
virt-install --name hass --description "Home Assistant OS" --os-variant=generic --ram=2048 --vcpus=2 --disk <PATH TO QCOW2 FILE>,bus=sata --import --graphics none --boot uefi
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub Bus 003 Device 004: ID 30c9:0052 Luxvisions Innotech Limited Integrated RGB Camera Bus 003 Device 003: ID 1a86:55d4 QinHeng Electronics SONOFF Zigbee 3.0 USB Dongle Plus V2 Bus 003 Device 002: ID 06cb:00fc Synaptics, Inc. Bus 003 Device 005: ID 8087:0033 Intel Corp. Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
You can recognize the Sonoff dongle at
Bus 003 Device 003. So the command to install the VM will become:
virt-install --name hass --description "Home Assistant OS" --os-variant=generic --ram=2048 --vcpus=2 --disk <PATH TO QCOW2 FILE>,bus=sata --import --graphics none --boot uefi --hostdev 003.003
Note that this configuration (bus 003, device 003) is just an example, your dongle could be on another bus and/or with another device ID.
Please check the correct IDs of your USB dongle with
- Start the virtual machine.
- Observe the boot process of the Home Assistant Operating System.
- Once completed, you will be able to reach Home Assistant on homeassistant.local:8123. If you are running an older Windows version or have a stricter network configuration, you might need to access Home Assistant at homeassistant:8123 or
http://X.X.X.X:8123(replace X.X.X.X with your ’s IP address).
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With the Home Assistant Operating System installed and accessible, you can continue with onboarding.
These below instructions are for an installation of Home Assistant Container running in your own container environment, which you manage yourself. Any OCI compatible runtime can be used, however this guide will focus on installing it with Docker.
This guide assumes that you already have an operating system setup and a container runtime installed (like Docker).
If you are using Docker then you need to be on at least version 19.03.9, ideally an even higher version, and
libseccomp 2.4.2 or newer.
Installation with Docker is straightforward. Adjust the following command so that:
/PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIGpoints at the folder where you want to store your configuration and run it. Make sure that you keep the
MY_TIME_ZONEis a tz database name, like
D-Bus is optional but required if you plan to use the Bluetooth integration.
docker run -d \ --name homeassistant \ --privileged \ --restart=unless-stopped \ -e TZ=MY_TIME_ZONE \ -v /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config \ -v /run/dbus:/run/dbus:ro \ --network=host \ ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable
# if this returns "Image is up to date" then you can stop here docker pull ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable
# stop the running container docker stop homeassistant
# remove it from Docker's list of containers docker rm homeassistant
# finally, start a new one docker run -d \ --name homeassistant \ --restart=unless-stopped \ --privileged \ -e TZ=MY_TIME_ZONE \ -v /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config \ -v /run/dbus:/run/dbus:ro \ --network=host \ ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable
Once the Home Assistant Container is running Home Assistant should be accessible using
with the hostname or IP of the system). You can continue with onboarding.
If you change the configuration, you have to restart the server. To do that you have 3 options.
- In your Home Assistant UI, go to the Settings > System and click the Restart button.
- You can go to the Developer Tools > Services, select the service
homeassistant.restartand select Call Service.
- Restart it from a terminal.
docker restart homeassistant
docker compose restart
As the Docker command becomes more complex, switching to
docker composecan be preferable and support automatically restarting on failure or system restart. Create a
version: '3' services: homeassistant: container_name: homeassistant image: "ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable" volumes: - /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro - /run/dbus:/run/dbus:ro restart: unless-stopped privileged: true network_mode: host
Start it by running:
docker compose up -d
Once the Home Assistant Container is running, Home Assistant should be accessible using
with the hostname or IP of the system). You can continue with onboarding.
In order to use Zigbee or other integrations that require access to devices, you need to map the appropriate device into the container. Ensure the user that is running the container has the correct privileges to access the
/dev/tty*file, then add the device mapping to your container instructions:
docker run ... --device /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0 ...
version: '3' services: homeassistant: ... devices: - /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0
The Home Assistant Container is using an alternative memory allocation library jemalloc for better memory management and Python runtime speedup.
As jemalloc can cause issues on certain hardware, it can be disabled by passing the environment variable
DISABLE_JEMALLOCwith any value, for example:
docker run ... -e "DISABLE_JEMALLOC=true" ...
version: '3' services: homeassistant: ... environment: - DISABLE_JEMALLOC: true
The error message
<jemalloc>: Unsupported system page sizeis one known indicator.
This is an advanced installation process, and some steps might differ on your system. Considering the nature of this installation type, we assume you can handle subtle differences between this document and the system configuration you are using. When in doubt, please consider one of the other installation methods, as they might be a better fit instead.Prerequisites
This guide assumes that you already have an operating system setup and have installed Python 3.11 (including the package
python3-dev) or newer.
Before you start, make sure your system is fully updated, all packages in this guide are installed with
apt, if your OS does not have that, look for alternatives.
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get upgrade -y
Install the dependencies:
sudo apt-get install -y python3 python3-dev python3-venv python3-pip bluez libffi-dev libssl-dev libjpeg-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf build-essential libopenjp2-7 libtiff6 libturbojpeg0-dev tzdata ffmpeg liblapack3 liblapack-dev libatlas-base-dev
The above-listed dependencies might differ or missing, depending on your system or personal use of Home Assistant.
Add an account for Home Assistant Core called
homeassistant. Since this account is only for running Home Assistant Core the extra arguments of
-rmis added to create a system account and create a home directory.
sudo useradd -rm homeassistant
First we will create a directory for the installation of Home Assistant Core and change the owner to the
sudo mkdir /srv/homeassistant sudo chown homeassistant:homeassistant /srv/homeassistant
Next up is to create and change to a virtual environment for Home Assistant Core. This will be done as the
sudo -u homeassistant -H -s cd /srv/homeassistant python3 -m venv . source bin/activate
Once you have activated the virtual environment (notice the prompt change to
(homeassistant) homeassistant@raspberrypi:/srv/homeassistant $) you will need to run the following command to install a required Python package.
python3 -m pip install wheel
Once you have installed the required Python package, it is now time to install Home Assistant Core!
pip3 install homeassistant==2023.11.3
Start Home Assistant Core for the first time. This will complete the installation for you, automatically creating the
.homeassistantconfiguration directory in the
/home/homeassistantdirectory, and installing any basic dependencies.
You can now reach your installation via the web interface on
If this address doesn’t work you may also try
http://X.X.X.X:8123(replace X.X.X.X with your machines’ IP address).
When you run the
hasscommand for the first time, it will download, install and cache the necessary libraries/dependencies. This procedure may take anywhere between 5 to 10 minutes. During that time, you may get a site cannot be reached error when accessing the web interface. This will only happen the first time. Subsequent restarts will be much faster.
This way of running Home Assistant will require the most of you. It also has strict requirements you need to follow.
- First make sure you understand the requirements.
- This installation method has very strict requirements, for example, it only supports Debian (and Ubuntu, Armbian, Raspberry Pi OS are not supported). So, make sure you understand the requirements from step 1 above.
- Then head over to home-assistant/supervised-installer to set it up.
Once the Home Assistant Supervised installation is running and Home Assistant is accessible you can continue with onboarding.