Linux


Install Home Assistant Operating System

Follow this guide if you want to get started with Home Assistant easily or if you have little to no Linux experience

Download the appropriate image

Create the Virtual Machine

Load the appliance image into your virtual machine software. (Note: You are free to assign as much resources as you wish to the VM, please assign enough based on your add-on needs)

Minimum recommended assignments:

  • 2GB RAM
  • 32GB Storage
  • 2vCPU

All these can be extended if your usage calls for more resources.

Hypervisor specific configuration

  1. Create a new virtual machine
  2. Select “Other Linux (64Bit)
  3. Select “Use an existing virtual hard disk file”, select the VDI file from above
  4. Edit the “Settings” of the VM and go “System” then Motherboard and Enable EFI
  5. Then “Network” “Adapter 1” Bridged and your adapter.
  1. Create a new virtual machine in virt-manager
  2. Select “Import existing disk image”, provide the path to the QCOW2 image above
  3. Choose “Generic Default” for the operating system
  4. Check the box for “Customize configuration before install”
  5. Select your bridge under “Network Selection”
  6. Under customization select “Overview” -> “Firmware” -> “UEFI x86_64: …”.****
  1. Create a new virtual machine
  2. Select “Custom”, make it compatible with the default of Workstation and ESX
  3. Choose “I will install the operating system later”, select “Linux” -> “Other Linux 5.x or later kernel 64-bit”
  4. Select “Use Bridged Networking”
  5. Select “Use an existing virtual disk” and select the VMDK file above,

After creation of VM go to “Settings” and “Options” then “Advanced” and select “Firmware type” to “UEFI”.

Start up your Virtual Machine

  1. Start the Virtual Machine
  2. Observe the boot process of Home Assistant Operating System
  3. Once completed you will be able to reach Home Assistant on homeassistant.local:8123. If you are running an older Windows version or have a stricter network configuration, you might need to access Home Assistant at homeassistant:8123 or http://X.X.X.X:8123 (replace X.X.X.X with your ’s IP address).

With the Home Assistant Operating System installed and accessible you can continue with onboarding.

Onboarding

Install Home Assistant Container

These below instructions are for an installation of Home Assistant Container running in your own container environment, which you manage yourself. Any OCI compatible runtime can be used, however this guide will focus on installing it with Docker.

Prerequisites

This guide assumes that you already have an operating system setup and a container runtime installed (like Docker).

Platform Installation

Installation with Docker is straightforward. Adjust the following command so that /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG points at the folder where you want to store your configuration and run it.

docker run --init -d \
  --name homeassistant \
  --restart=unless-stopped \
  -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro \
  -v /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config \
  --network=host \
  homeassistant/home-assistant:stable
# if this returns "Image is up to date" then you can stop here
docker pull homeassistant/home-assistant:stable
# stop the running container
docker stop homeassistant
# remove it from Docker's list of containers
docker rm homeassistant
# finally, start a new one
docker run --init -d \
  --name homeassistant \
  --restart=unless-stopped \
  -v /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config \
  -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro \
  --network=host \
  homeassistant/home-assistant:stable

Once the Home Assistant Container is running Home Assistant should be accessible using http://<host>:8123 (replace with the hostname or IP of the system). You can continue with onboarding.

Onboarding

Restart Home Assistant

If you change the configuration you have to restart the server. To do that you have 3 options.

  1. In your Home Assistant UI go to the Configuration panel -> Server management and click the “Restart” button.
  2. You can go to the Developer Tools -> Services, select the service homeassistant.restart and click “Call Service”.
  3. Restart it from a terminal.
docker restart homeassistant
docker-compose restart

Docker Compose

As the Docker command becomes more complex, switching to docker-compose can be preferable and support automatically restarting on failure or system restart. Create a docker-compose.yml file:

version: '3'
services:
  homeassistant:
    container_name: homeassistant
    image: homeassistant/home-assistant:stable
    volumes:
      - /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config
      - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
    restart: unless-stopped
    network_mode: host

Start it by running:

docker-compose up -d

Exposing Devices

In order to use Z-Wave, Zigbee or other integrations that require access to devices, you need to map the appropriate device into the container. Ensure the user that is running the container has the correct privileges to access the /dev/tty* file, then add the device mapping to your container instructions:

docker run ... --device /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0 ...
version: '3'
services:
  homeassistant:
    ...
    devices:
      - /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0

Optimizations

The Home Assistant Container is using an alternative memory allocation library jemalloc for better memory management and Python runtime speedup.

As jemalloc can cause issues on certain hardware, it can be disabled by passing the environment variable DISABLE_JEMALLOC with any value, for example:

docker run ... -e "DISABLE_JEMALLOC=true" ...
version: '3'
services:
  homeassistant:
  ...
  environment:
    DISABLE_JEMALLOC: true

The error message <jemalloc>: Unsupported system page size is one known indicator.

Install Home Assistant Core

Prerequisites

This guide assumes that you already have an operating system setup and have installed Python 3.8 (including the package python3-dev) or newer.

Install dependencies

Before you start make sure your system is fully updated, all packages in this guide are installed with apt, if your OS does not have that, look for alternatives.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade -y

Install the dependencies:

sudo apt-get install -y python3 python3-dev python3-venv python3-pip libffi-dev libssl-dev libjpeg-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf build-essential libopenjp2-7 libtiff5

Create an account

Add an account for Home Assistant Core called homeassistant. Since this account is only for running Home Assistant Core the extra arguments of -rm is added to create a system account and create a home directory.

sudo useradd -rm homeassistant

Create the virtual environment

First we will create a directory for the installation of Home Assistant Core and change the owner to the homeassistant account.

sudo mkdir /srv/homeassistant
sudo chown homeassistant:homeassistant /srv/homeassistant

Next up is to create and change to a virtual environment for Home Assistant Core. This will be done as the homeassistant account.

sudo -u homeassistant -H -s
cd /srv/homeassistant
python3.8 -m venv .
source bin/activate

Once you have activated the virtual environment (notice the prompt change to (homeassistant) [email protected]:/srv/homeassistant $) you will need to run the following command to install a required Python package.

python3 -m pip install wheel

Once you have installed the required Python package it is now time to install Home Assistant Core!

pip3 install homeassistant

Start Home Assistant Core for the first time. This will complete the installation for you, automatically creating the .homeassistant configuration directory in the /home/homeassistant directory, and installing any basic dependencies.

hass

You can now reach your installation via the web interface on http://homeassistant.local:8123.

When you run the hass command for the first time, it will download, install and cache the necessary libraries/dependencies. This procedure may take anywhere between 5 to 10 minutes. During that time, you may get “site cannot be reached” error when accessing the web interface. This will only happen for the first time, and subsequent restarts will be much faster.

Install Home Assistant Supervised

This way of running Home Assistant will require the most of you. It also have strict requirements you need to follow.

Unless you really need this installation type, you should install Home Assistant OS (this can also be a virtual machine), or Home Assistant Container.

  1. First make sure you understand the requirements.
  2. Then head over to home-assistant/supervised-installer to set it up.

Once the Home Assistant Supervised installation is running and Home Assistant accessible you can continue with onboarding.

Onboarding