Linux

Install Home Assistant Operating System

Download the appropriate image

After downloading, decompress the image. If the image comes in a ZIP file, for example, unzip it.

Follow this guide if you already are running a supported virtual machine hypervisor. If you are not familiar with virtual machines, install Home Assistant OS directly on a Home Assistant Yellow, a Raspberry Pi, or an ODROID.

Create the virtual machine

Load the appliance image into your virtual machine hypervisor. (Note: You are free to assign as much resources as you wish to the VM, please assign enough based on your add-on needs).

Minimum recommended assignments:

  • 2 GB RAM
  • 32 GB Storage
  • 2vCPU

All these can be extended if your usage calls for more resources.

Hypervisor specific configuration

  1. Create a new virtual machine.
  2. Select type Linux and version Linux 2.6 / 3.x / 4.x (64-bit).
  3. Under Hardware, select the amount of memory and number of CPUs. Then, select Enable EFI.
    • Make sure EFI is enabled. If EFI is not enabled, HAOS won’t boot.
  4. Under Hard Disk, select Use an existing virtual hard disk file, select the unzipped VDI file from above.
  5. Then go to Network > Adapter 1. Choose Bridged Adapter and choose your network adapter.
    Please keep in mind that the bridged adapter only functions over a hardwired Ethernet connection. Using Wi-Fi on your VirtualBox host is unsupported.
  6. Then go to Audio and choose Intel HD Audio as audio controller.

By default, VirtualBox does not free up unused disk space. To automatically shrink the vdi disk image the discard option must be enabled using your host machine’s terminal:

VBoxManage storageattach <VM name> --storagectl "SATA" --port 0 --device 0 --nonrotational on --discard on

More details can be found about the command can be found here.

  1. Download the .qcow2 image above and decompress it. (Extract all in Windows)
  2. Store the image in the isos share on your server.
  3. Make sure under Settings > VM manager, Enable VMs is enabled.
  4. Create a new virtual machine: VMS > Add VM.
  5. Select type Linux and give the VM a name and a description.
  6. Select the CPU cores you want to let the VM use and give it some memory.
  7. Under Primary vDisk Location, select Manual and then select the qcow2 image.
  8. Select your keyboard language under VM Console Keyboard.
  9. Select br0 under Network Source.
  10. Select virtio under Network model.
  11. Select any USB-devices that you want to pass through to Home Assistant, such as Zigbee- or Z-Wave controllers.
  12. Deselect Start VM after creation.
  13. Select Create.
  14. Select the name of your new VM and select the capacity number for your disk. Here, you can expand the disk to whatever your needs are. The default is 32 GB.
  15. Select the icon of your new VM and select start with console (VNC).
  1. Create a new virtual machine in virt-manager.
  2. Select Import existing disk image, provide the path to the QCOW2 image above.
  3. Choose Generic Default for the operating system.
  4. Check the box for Customize configuration before install.
  5. Under Network Selection, select your bridge.
  6. Under customization select Overview > Firmware > UEFI x86_64: …. Make sure to select a non-secureboot version of OVMF (does not contain the word secure, secboot, etc.), e.g., /usr/share/edk2/ovmf/OVMF_CODE.fd.
  7. Click Add Hardware (bottom left), and select Channel.
  8. Select device type: unix.
  9. Select name: org.qemu.guest_agent.0.
  10. Finally, select Begin Installation (upper left corner).
virt-install --name haos --description "Home Assistant OS" --os-variant=generic --ram=4096 --vcpus=2 --disk <PATH TO QCOW2 FILE>,bus=scsi --controller type=scsi,model=virtio-scsi --import --graphics none --boot uefi

If you have a USB dongle to attach, you need to add the option --hostdev busID.deviceId. You can discover these IDs via the lsusb command. As example, if lsusb output is:

   Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
   Bus 003 Device 004: ID 30c9:0052 Luxvisions Innotech Limited Integrated RGB Camera
   Bus 003 Device 003: ID 1a86:55d4 QinHeng Electronics SONOFF Zigbee 3.0 USB Dongle Plus V2
   Bus 003 Device 002: ID 06cb:00fc Synaptics, Inc. 
   Bus 003 Device 005: ID 8087:0033 Intel Corp. 
   Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
   Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0003 Linux Foundation 3.0 root hub
   Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

You can recognize the Sonoff dongle at Bus 003 Device 003. So the command to install the VM will become:

virt-install --name haos --description "Home Assistant OS" --os-variant=generic --ram=4096 --vcpus=2 --disk <PATH TO QCOW2 FILE>,bus=scsi --controller type=scsi,model=virtio-scsi --import --graphics none --boot uefi --hostdev 003.003

Note that this configuration (bus 003, device 003) is just an example, your dongle could be on another bus and/or with another device ID. Please check the correct IDs of your USB dongle with lsusb.

Start up your virtual machine

  1. Start the virtual machine.
  2. Observe the boot process of the Home Assistant Operating System.
  3. Once completed, you will be able to reach Home Assistant on homeassistant.local:8123. If you are running an older Windows version or have a stricter network configuration, you might need to access Home Assistant at homeassistant:8123 or http://X.X.X.X:8123 (replace X.X.X.X with your ’s IP address).

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With the Home Assistant Operating System installed and accessible, you can continue with onboarding.

  Onboarding

Install Home Assistant Container

These below instructions are for an installation of Home Assistant ContainerHome Assistant Container is a standalone container-based installation of Home Assistant Core. Any OCI compatible runtime can be used, but the documentation focus is on Docker.[Learn more] running in your own container environment, which you manage yourself. Any OCI compatible runtime can be used, however this guide will focus on installing it with Docker.

Important

<bPrerequisites This guide assumes that you already have an operating system setup and a container runtime installed (like Docker).

If you are using Docker then you need to be on at least version 19.03.9, ideally an even higher version, and libseccomp 2.4.2 or newer.

Platform installation

Installation with Docker is straightforward. Adjust the following command so that:

  • /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG points at the folder where you want to store your configuration and run it. Make sure that you keep the :/config part.

  • MY_TIME_ZONE is a tz database name, like TZ=America/Los_Angeles.

  • D-Bus is optional but required if you plan to use the Bluetooth integration.

    docker run -d \
      --name homeassistant \
      --privileged \
      --restart=unless-stopped \
      -e TZ=MY_TIME_ZONE \
      -v /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config \
      -v /run/dbus:/run/dbus:ro \
      --network=host \
      ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable
    
    # if this returns "Image is up to date" then you can stop here
    docker pull ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable
    
    # stop the running container
    docker stop homeassistant
    
    # remove it from Docker's list of containers
    docker rm homeassistant
    
    # finally, start a new one
    docker run -d \
      --name homeassistant \
      --restart=unless-stopped \
      --privileged \
      -e TZ=MY_TIME_ZONE \
      -v /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config \
      -v /run/dbus:/run/dbus:ro \
      --network=host \
      ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable
    

    Once the Home Assistant Container is running Home Assistant should be accessible using http://<host>:8123 (replace with the hostname or IP of the system). You can continue with onboarding.

      Onboarding

    Restart Home Assistant

    If you change the configuration, you have to restart the server. To do that you have 3 options.

    1. In your Home Assistant UI, go to the Settings > System and click the Restart button.
    2. You can go to the Developer Tools > Services, select the service homeassistant.restart and select Call Service.
    3. Restart it from a terminal.
    docker restart homeassistant
    
    docker compose restart
    

    Docker compose

    Tip

    docker compose should already be installed on your system. If not, you can manually install it.

    As the Docker command becomes more complex, switching to docker compose can be preferable and support automatically restarting on failure or system restart. Create a compose.yml file:

      services:
        homeassistant:
          container_name: homeassistant
          image: "ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable"
          volumes:
            - /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config
            - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
            - /run/dbus:/run/dbus:ro
          restart: unless-stopped
          privileged: true
          network_mode: host
    

    Start it by running:

    docker compose up -d
    

    Once the Home Assistant Container is running, Home Assistant should be accessible using http://<host>:8123 (replace with the hostname or IP of the system). You can continue with onboarding.

      Onboarding

    Exposing devices

    In order to use Zigbee or other integrations that require access to devices, you need to map the appropriate device into the container. Ensure the user that is running the container has the correct privileges to access the /dev/tty* file, then add the device mapping to your container instructions:

    docker run ... --device /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0 ...
    
    services:
      homeassistant:
        ...
        devices:
          - /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0
    

    Optimizations

    The Home Assistant Container is using an alternative memory allocation library jemalloc for better memory management and Python runtime speedup.

    As jemalloc can cause issues on certain hardware, it can be disabled by passing the environment variable DISABLE_JEMALLOC with any value, for example:

    docker run ... -e "DISABLE_JEMALLOC=true" ...
    
    services:
      homeassistant:
      ...
        environment:
          DISABLE_JEMALLOC: true
    

    The error message <jemalloc>: Unsupported system page size is one known indicator.

    Install Home Assistant Core

    Caution

    This is an advanced installation process, and some steps might differ on your system. Considering the nature of this installation type, we assume you can handle subtle differences between this document and the system configuration you are using. When in doubt, please consider one of the other installation methods, as they might be a better fit instead.

    Important

    Prerequisites

    This guide assumes that you already have an operating system setup and have installed Python 3.12 (including the package python3-dev) or newer.

    Install dependencies

    Before you start, make sure your system is fully updated, all packages in this guide are installed with apt, if your OS does not have that, look for alternatives.

    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get upgrade -y
    

    Install the dependencies:

    sudo apt-get install -y python3 python3-dev python3-venv python3-pip bluez libffi-dev libssl-dev libjpeg-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf build-essential libopenjp2-7 libtiff6 libturbojpeg0-dev tzdata ffmpeg liblapack3 liblapack-dev libatlas-base-dev
    

    The above-listed dependencies might differ or missing, depending on your system or personal use of Home Assistant.

    Create an account

    Add an account for Home Assistant Core called homeassistant. Since this account is only for running Home Assistant Core the extra arguments of -rm is added to create a system account and create a home directory.

    sudo useradd -rm homeassistant
    

    Create the virtual environment

    First we will create a directory for the installation of Home Assistant Core and change the owner to the homeassistant account.

    sudo mkdir /srv/homeassistant
    sudo chown homeassistant:homeassistant /srv/homeassistant
    

    Next up is to create and change to a virtual environment for Home Assistant Core. This will be done as the homeassistant account.

    sudo -u homeassistant -H -s
    cd /srv/homeassistant
    python3 -m venv .
    source bin/activate
    

    Once you have activated the virtual environment (notice the prompt change to (homeassistant) homeassistant@raspberrypi:/srv/homeassistant $) you will need to run the following command to install a required Python package.

    python3 -m pip install wheel
    

    Once you have installed the required Python package, it is now time to install Home Assistant Core!

    pip3 install homeassistant==2024.7.2
    

    Start Home Assistant Core for the first time. This will complete the installation for you, automatically creating the .homeassistant configuration directory in the /home/homeassistant directory, and installing any basic dependencies.

    hass
    

    You can now reach your installation via the web interface on http://homeassistant.local:8123.

    If this address doesn’t work you may also try http://localhost:8123 or http://X.X.X.X:8123 (replace X.X.X.X with your machines’ IP address).

    Note

    When you run the hass command for the first time, it will download, install and cache the necessary libraries/dependencies. This procedure may take anywhere between 5 to 10 minutes. During that time, you may get a site cannot be reached error when accessing the web interface. This will only happen the first time. Subsequent restarts will be much faster.

    Install Home Assistant Supervised

    Caution

    This way of running Home Assistant will require the most of you. It also has strict requirements you need to follow.

    Unless you really need this installation type, you should install Home Assistant OS (this can also be a virtual machine), or Home Assistant Container.

    1. First make sure you understand the requirements.
    2. This installation method has very strict requirements, for example, it only supports Debian (and Ubuntu, Armbian, Raspberry Pi OS are not supported). So, make sure you understand the requirements from step 1 above.
    3. Then head over to home-assistant/supervised-installer to set it up.

    Once the Home Assistant SupervisedHome Assistant Supervised is the full Home Assistant ecosystem, without the Home Assistant Operating System. [Learn more] installation is running and Home Assistant is accessible you can continue with onboarding.

      Onboarding