Generic x86-64


Install Home Assistant Operating System

Follow this guide if you want to get started with Home Assistant easily or if you have little to no Linux experience

Prerequisites

This guide assumes that you have a dedicated generic x86 PC (typically an Intel or AMD-based system) available to exclusively run Home Assistant Operating System. The system must be 64-bit capable and able to boot using UEFI. Pretty much all systems produced in the last 10 years support the UEFI boot mode.

Summary

You will need to write the HAOS (Home Assistant OS) disk image directly to your boot media, and then configure your x86 to boot from this media, using UEFI boot mode.

Configure the BIOS

To boot Home Assistant OS the BIOS needs to have UEFI boot mode enabled and Secure Boot disabled. The following screenshots are from a 7th generation Intel NUC system. The BIOS menu will likely look different on your systems. However, the options should still be present and named similarly.

  1. Enter the BIOS using the can enter using the F2 key (on some systems this might be Del, F1 or F10). Enter BIOS using F2, Del, F1 or F10 key

  2. Make sure the UEFI Boot mode is enabled Enable UEFI Boot mode

  3. Disable Secure Boot Disable Secure Boot mode

As a next step, we need to write the Operating System image to the target boot media (Your “boot media” is the disk, SSD, or eMMC that your x86-64 hardware will boot from when it is running Home Assistant). Depending on your system this can be a S-ATA hard disk, S-ATA SSD, a M.2 SSD or even a eMMC. Home Assistant Operating System has no integrated installer. You need to use your Desktop computer (e.g. by using a USB to S-ATA adapter) or boot a live operating system on your target system to install Home Assistant Operating System, by writing the disk image directly onto the boot media for your x86 system.

If you prefer to use a live operating system, follow the instructions of your Live distribution (e.g., this Ubuntu guide). Once you booted the live operating system, the following steps on how to write the image to your boot media can be followed.

Write the image to your boot media

  1. Attach the Home Assistant boot media (storage device) to your computer

  2. Download and start Balena Etcher

  3. Select “Flash from URL” etcher_from_url

  4. Get the URL for your Generic x86-64:


https://github.com/home-assistant/operating-system/releases/download/6.4/haos_generic-x86-64-6.4.img.xz

Select and copy the URL or use the “copy” button that appear when you hover it.

  1. Paste the URL for your Generic x86-64 into Balena Etcher and click “OK” etcher_from_url_paste
  2. Balena Etcher will now download the image, when that is done click “Select target” etcher_select_target
  3. Select the storage device you want to use for your Generic x86-64 etcher_select_target
  4. Click on “Flash!” to start writing the image etcher_select_target
  5. When Balena Etcher is finished writing the image you will get this confirmation etcher_select_target

Start up your Generic x86-64

  1. If you used your Desktop system to write to your boot media, install the boot media (storage device) into the target system. Otherwise, shutdown the live operating system and make sure to remove the USB flash drive you have been using for the live system.

  2. Make sure an ethernet cable for network is plugged in

  3. Power the system on.

  4. Within a few minutes you will be able to reach Home Assistant on homeassistant.local:8123. If you are running an older Windows version or have a stricter network configuration, you might need to access Home Assistant at homeassistant:8123 or http://X.X.X.X:8123 (replace X.X.X.X with your Generic x86-64’s IP address).

With the Home Assistant Operating System installed and accessible you can continue with onboarding.

Onboarding

Install Home Assistant Container

These below instructions are for an installation of Home Assistant Container running in your own container environment, which you manage yourself. Any OCI compatible runtime can be used, however this guide will focus on installing it with Docker.

Prerequisites

This guide assumes that you already have an operating system setup and a container runtime installed (like Docker).

If you are using Docker then you need to be on at least version 19.03.9, ideally an even higher version, and libseccomp 2.42 or newer.

Platform Installation

Installation with Docker is straightforward. Adjust the following command so that /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG points at the folder where you want to store your configuration and run it.

docker run -d \
  --name homeassistant \
  --privileged \
  --restart=unless-stopped \
  -e TZ=MY_TIME_ZONE \
  -v /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config \
  --network=host \
  ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable
# if this returns "Image is up to date" then you can stop here
docker pull ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable
# stop the running container
docker stop homeassistant
# remove it from Docker's list of containers
docker rm homeassistant
# finally, start a new one
docker run -d \
  --name homeassistant \
  --restart=unless-stopped \
  --privileged \
  -e TZ=MY_TIME_ZONE \
  -v /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config \
  --network=host \
  ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable

Once the Home Assistant Container is running Home Assistant should be accessible using http://<host>:8123 (replace with the hostname or IP of the system). You can continue with onboarding.

Onboarding

Restart Home Assistant

If you change the configuration you have to restart the server. To do that you have 3 options.

  1. In your Home Assistant UI go to the Configuration panel -> Server management and click the “Restart” button.
  2. You can go to the Developer Tools -> Services, select the service homeassistant.restart and click “Call Service”.
  3. Restart it from a terminal.
docker restart homeassistant
docker-compose restart

Docker Compose

In order to use docker-compose you first need to install docker-compose on your system.

As the Docker command becomes more complex, switching to docker-compose can be preferable and support automatically restarting on failure or system restart. Create a docker-compose.yml file:

version: '3'
services:
  homeassistant:
    container_name: homeassistant
    image: "ghcr.io/home-assistant/home-assistant:stable"
    volumes:
      - /PATH_TO_YOUR_CONFIG:/config
      - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
    restart: unless-stopped
    privileged: true
    network_mode: host

Start it by running:

docker-compose up -d

Exposing Devices

In order to use Z-Wave, Zigbee or other integrations that require access to devices, you need to map the appropriate device into the container. Ensure the user that is running the container has the correct privileges to access the /dev/tty* file, then add the device mapping to your container instructions:

docker run ... --device /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0 ...
version: '3'
services:
  homeassistant:
    ...
    devices:
      - /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0

Optimizations

The Home Assistant Container is using an alternative memory allocation library jemalloc for better memory management and Python runtime speedup.

As jemalloc can cause issues on certain hardware, it can be disabled by passing the environment variable DISABLE_JEMALLOC with any value, for example:

docker run ... -e "DISABLE_JEMALLOC=true" ...
version: '3'
services:
  homeassistant:
  ...
  environment:
    DISABLE_JEMALLOC: true

The error message <jemalloc>: Unsupported system page size is one known indicator.

Install Home Assistant Core

Prerequisites

This guide assumes that you already have an operating system setup and have installed Python 3.8 (including the package python3-dev) or newer.

Install dependencies

Before you start make sure your system is fully updated, all packages in this guide are installed with apt, if your OS does not have that, look for alternatives.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade -y

Install the dependencies:

sudo apt-get install -y python3 python3-dev python3-venv python3-pip libffi-dev libssl-dev libjpeg-dev zlib1g-dev autoconf build-essential libopenjp2-7 libtiff5 libturbojpeg tzdata

Create an account

Add an account for Home Assistant Core called homeassistant. Since this account is only for running Home Assistant Core the extra arguments of -rm is added to create a system account and create a home directory. The arguments -G dialout,gpio,i2c adds the user to the dialout, gpio and the i2c group. The first is required for using Z-Wave and Zigbee controllers, while the second is required to communicate with GPIO.

sudo useradd -rm homeassistant -G dialout,gpio,i2c

Create the virtual environment

First we will create a directory for the installation of Home Assistant Core and change the owner to the homeassistant account.

sudo mkdir /srv/homeassistant
sudo chown homeassistant:homeassistant /srv/homeassistant

Next up is to create and change to a virtual environment for Home Assistant Core. This will be done as the homeassistant account.

sudo -u homeassistant -H -s
cd /srv/homeassistant
python3.8 -m venv .
source bin/activate

Once you have activated the virtual environment (notice the prompt change to (homeassistant) [email protected]:/srv/homeassistant $) you will need to run the following command to install a required Python package.

python3 -m pip install wheel

Once you have installed the required Python package it is now time to install Home Assistant Core!

pip3 install homeassistant

Start Home Assistant Core for the first time. This will complete the installation for you, automatically creating the .homeassistant configuration directory in the /home/homeassistant directory, and installing any basic dependencies.

hass

You can now reach your installation via the web interface on http://homeassistant.local:8123.

If this address doesn’t work you may also try http://localhost:8123 or http://X.X.X.X:8123 (replace X.X.X.X with your machines’ IP address).

When you run the hass command for the first time, it will download, install and cache the necessary libraries/dependencies. This procedure may take anywhere between 5 to 10 minutes. During that time, you may get “site cannot be reached” error when accessing the web interface. This will only happen for the first time, and subsequent restarts will be much faster.