Zigbee Home Automation

The ZHA (Zigbee Home Automation) integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] allows you to wirelessly connect many off-the-shelf Zigbee-based devices directly to Home Assistant, using one of the many available Zigbee coordinators.

ZHA uses an open-source Python library implementing a hardware-independent Zigbee stack called zigpy. All coordinators compatible with zigpy can be used with ZHA.

This integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] currently supports the following device types within Home Assistant:

In addition, it has support for “Zigbee groups” that enable native on-device grouping of multiple Zigbee lights, switches, and fans that enable controlling all entities for those devices in those groups with one command. At least two entities must be added to a Zigbee group inside the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] before a group entity is created. There is also support for native on-device Zigbee binding and unbinding (i.e. bind a remote to a lightbulb or group).

Introduction

This ZHA integration is a hardware-independent Zigbee gateway implementation that can replace most proprietary Zigbee gateways/bridges/hubs/controllers. Zigbee is a low-bandwidth communication protocol that relies on using small low-power digital radios to connect compatible devices to local Zigbee wireless private area networks. ZHA will create a single Zigbee network to which you can then pair/join most Zigbee-based devices that are made for home automation and lighting.

Before installing the ZHA integration in Home Assistant, you need to connect a Zigbee Coordinator radio adapter that will connect to your Zigbee network. Those normally come in the form of a USB dongle that plugs directly into the same computer that is running your Home Assistant installation. The ZHA integration is compatible with many different “Zigbee Coordinator” adapters from various manufacturers. Be sure to note the recommendations in the respective sections below before buying a Zigbee Coordinator. A Zigbee network always needs to have one Zigbee Coordinator (it can never have more than one), and Zigbee devices can never be connected to more than a single Zigbee network, however, a Zigbee network can have multiple “Zigbee Router” devices and “Zigbee End Device” products.

Once ZHA has been set up with a Zigbee Coordinator it will automatically create a Zigbee network and you will be able to join/pair any Zigbee Router devices and Zigbee End Devices. With only a few limitations, most devices will join/pair directly regardless of brand and manufacturer. Technically almost all devices that are compliant with the official Zigbee specifications should offer interoperability, though a newer Zigbee Coordinator with support for later firmware often offers better compatibility with both new and older devices. Still, be aware that all functionality might not always be supported or exposed for every device out-of-the-box as some devices that use manufacturer-specific extensions to add non-standard functions and features could sometimes need device-specific code to fully work with ZHA.

Note that because Zigbee relies on “mesh networking” technology it depends heavily on having Zigbee Router devices to expand the network coverage and extend its size. These are always mains-powered devices that route messages to other devices that are located close to them within the Zigbee network mesh to improve the range and increase the total amount of devices you can add. You should therefore make sure that you add many Zigbee Router devices and not just Zigbee End Devices or else its network mesh connection routes will be limited due to the short range and poor wall penetration of Zigbee radio signals. It is highly recommended that you read and follow all the general tips below about Zigbee interference avoidance and network range/coverage optimization).

Compatible hardware

ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] uses a hardware independent Zigbee stack implementation with modular design, which means that it can support any one of the many Zigbee coordinator radio modules/adapters available from different manufacturers, as long as that module/adapter is compatible with zigpy.

Note! Zigbee 3.0 support or not in zigpy, depends primarily on your Zigbee coordinator hardware and its firmware. Some Zigbee coordinator hardware supports Zigbee 3.0 but might be shipped with an older firmware which does not. In such a case you may want to upgrade the firmware manually yourself.

Some other Zigbee coordinator hardware may not support a firmware that is capable of Zigbee 3.0 at all but can still be fully functional and feature-complete for your needs. This is very common as many, if not most, Zigbee devices do not yet Zigbee 3.0. As a general rule, newer Zigbee coordinator hardware generally supports Zigbee 3.0 firmware and it is up to its manufacturer to make such firmware available for them.

Known working Zigbee radio modules

Recommended Zigbee radio adapters and modules

Other supported but not recommended Zigbee radio adapters or modules

Warning about using Zigbee Coordinator over Wi-Fi/WAN/VPN

Caution

Be aware that using a Zigbee Coordinator via a Serial-Proxy-Server (also known as Serial-to-IP bridge or Ser2Net remote adapter) over a Wi-Fi, WAN, or VPN connection is not recommended.

Serial protocols used by the Zigbee Coordinator do not have enough robustness, resilience, or fault tolerance to handle packet loss and latency delays that can occur over unstable connections.

A Zigbee Coordinator requires a stable local connection to its serial port interface with no drops in communication between it and the Zigbee gateway application running on the host computer.

Configuration - GUI

Connect your radio module and restart Home Assistant.

From the Home Assistant front page go to Configuration and then select Integrations from the list.

Use the plus button in the bottom right to add a new integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] called ZHA.

In the popup:

  • Serial Device Path - List of detected serial ports on the system. You need to pick one to which your radio is connected
  • Submit

Press Submit and the integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] will try to detect radio type automatically. If unsuccessful, you will get a new pop-up asking for a radio type. In the pop-up:

  • Radio Type
Radio Type Zigbee Radio Hardware
ezsp Silicon Labs EmberZNet protocol (e.g., Home Assistant SkyConnect, Elelabs, HUSBZB-1, Telegesis)
deconz dresden elektronik deCONZ protocol (e.g., ConBee I/II, RaspBee I/II)
znp Texas Instruments (e.g., CC253x, CC26x2, CC13x2)
zigate ZiGate Serial protocol (e.g., ZiGate USB-TTL, PiZiGate, ZiGate WiFi)
xbee Digi XBee ZB Coordinator Firmware protocol (e.g., Digi XBee Series 2, 2C, 3)
  • Submit

Press Submit to save radio type and you will get a new form asking for port settings specific for this radio type. In the pop-up:

  • Serial device path
  • port speed (not applicable for all radios)
  • data flow control (not applicable for all radios)

Most devices need at the very least the serial device path, like /dev/ttyUSB0, but it is recommended to use device path from /dev/serial/by-id folder, e.g., /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Silicon_Labs_HubZ_Smart_Home_Controller_C0F003D3-if01-port0 A list of available device paths can be found in Settings > System > Hardware > dot menu > All Hardware.

Press Submit. The success dialog will appear or an error will be displayed in the popup. An error is likely if Home Assistant can’t access the USB device or your device is not up to date. Refer to Troubleshooting below for more information.

ZiGate or Sonoff ZBBridge devices

If you are use ZiGate or Sonoff ZBBridge you have to use some special usb_path configuration:

  • ZiGate USB TTL or DIN: /dev/ttyUSB0 or auto to auto discover the zigate
  • PiZigate : pizigate:/dev/ttyS0
  • Wifi Zigate : socket://[IP]:[PORT] for example socket://192.168.1.10:9999
  • Sonoff ZBBridge : socket://[IP]:[PORT] for example socket://192.168.1.11:8888

Discovery via USB or Zeroconf

Some devices can be auto-discovered, which can simplify the ZHA setup process. The following devices have been tested with discovery and offer a quick setup experience:

Device Discovery Method Identifier
ITead SONOFF Zigbee 3.0 USB Dongle Plus V2 Model “ZBDongle-E” (EFR32MG21 variant) USB 1A86:55D4
ITead SONOFF Zigbee 3.0 USB Dongle Plus Model “ZBDongle-P” (CC2652P variant) USB 10C4:EA60
Bitron Video/SMaBiT BV AV2010/10 USB 10C4:8B34
ConBee II USB 1CF1:0030
ConBee III USB 0403:6015
Nortek HUSBZB-1 USB 10C4:8A2A
slae.sh CC2652RB development stick USB 10C4:EA60
SMLIGHT SLZB-07 USB 10C4:EA60
ZigStar Stick (CC2652 + CH340B variant) USB 1A86:7523
Tube’s EFR32 Pro Ethernet/Serial Coordinator USB 10C4:EA60
ZigStar Coordinators USB 1A86:7523
XZG - Universal Firmware for Zigbee Gateway Zeroconf xzg.local.
SMLIGHT SLZB-06 POE Zigbee LAN WiFi USB Adapter Zeroconf slzb-06.local.
ZigStar UZG Universal Zigbee Gateway (UZG-01) Zeroconf uzg-01._tcp.local.
cod.m Zigbee Coordinator Zeroconf czc._tcp.local.
ZigStar LAN/POE Coordinators Zeroconf zigstargw.local.
Tube’s CC2652P2 USB-powered Zigbee to Ethernet Serial Coordinator) Zeroconf tube_zb_gw_cc2652p2.local.
Tube’s CC2652P2 PoE-powered Zigbee to Ethernet Serial Coordinator) Zeroconf tube_zb_gw_cc2652p2_poe.local.
Tube’s EFR32 Based Zigbee to Ethernet Serial Coordinator) Zeroconf tube_zb_gw_efr32.local.

Additional devices in the Known working Zigbee radio modules list may be discoverable, however, only devices that have been confirmed discoverable are listed above.

OTA updates of Zigbee device firmware

The ZHA integration has the ability to perform OTA (over-the-air) firmware updates of Zigbee devices. This feature is enabled by default. As it uses standard Update entities in Home Assistant, users will get a UI notification if and when an OTA firmware update is available for a specific device, with an option to initiate the update or ignore that specific update for the device.

To see OTA updates for a device, it’s required that it both supports OTA updates and that firmware images for the device are publicly provided by the manufacturer. For this reason, ZHA currently only includes OTA providers for a few manufacturers that provide these updates publicly. This includes IKEA, Inovelli, Ledvacnce/OSRAM, SALUS/Computime, Sonoff/iTead, and Third Reality.

Warning

Before updating a device, you should search for any disadvantages or if you even need to install an available update. Some firmware updates can break features you might use (e.g. group binding for IKEA devices). Some updates might also require changes to ZHA. In rare cases, you can even brick devices by installing a firmware update.

Configuration - YAML

For more advanced configuration, you can modify configuration.yamlThe configuration.yaml file is the main configuration file for Home Assistant. It lists the integrations to be loaded and their specific configurations. In some cases, the configuration needs to be edited manually directly in the configuration.yaml file. Most integrations can be configured in the UI.[Learn more] and restart Home Assistant

Configuration Variables

database_path string Required

Full path to the database which will keep persistent network data.

enable_quirks boolean (Optional, default: true)

Enable quirks mode for devices where manufacturers didn’t follow specs.

custom_quirks_path string (Optional)

Full path to a directory containing custom quirk modules that will take precedence over any built-in quirks matching a device.

Advanced OTA configuration

The default configuration for OTA firmware updates is chosen by ZHA developers, so normal users should not need to change any configuration. Most of the config options listed in the zigpy section are just meant for development or advanced users.

Further advanced configuration options are only provided in the zigpy project’s developers documentation.

However, if you want to disable OTA updates for a specific manufacturer, you can add the following lines to your configuration.yaml and restart Home Assistant.

zha:
  zigpy_config:
    ota:
      ikea_provider: false                       # Disable OTA update downloads for Trådfri devices
      inovelli_provider: false                   # Disable OTA update downloads for INOVELLI devices
      ledvance_provider: false                   # Disable OTA update downloads for LEDVANCE/OSRAM devices
      salus_provider: false                      # Disable OTA update downloads for SALUS/Computime devices
      sonoff_provider: false                     # Disable OTA update downloads for Sonoff (ITead) devices
      thirdreality_provider: false               # Disable OTA update downloads for 3REALITY devices

Defining Zigbee channel to use

Tip! Before considering to change to an other Zigbee channel on an existing Zigbee network, it is highly recommended that you read through the two segments under the troubleshooting section below about “Best practices to avoid pairing/connection difficulties” and “Zigbee interference avoidance and network range/coverage optimization”. These sections provide prerequisite information and advice on how to achieve the best possible Zigbee network in your environment.

ZHA prefers to use Zigbee channel 15 by default. You can change this using YAML configuration, but this only works if there’s no existing network. To change the channel for an existing network, radio has to be factory reset and a new network to be formed. This requires re-pairing of all the devices.

zha:
  zigpy_config:
    network:
      channel: 15             # What channel the radio should try to use.
      channels: [15, 20, 25]  # Channel mask

Note! The best practice is to not change the Zigbee channel from the ZHA default. Also, the related troubleshooting segments mentioned in the tip above will, among other things, inform that if you have issues with overlapping frequencies between Wi-Fi and Zigbee, then it is usually better to first only try changing and setting a static Wi-Fi channel on your Wi-Fi router or all your Wi-Fi access points (instead of just changing to another Zigbee channel).

MetaGeek Support has a good reference article about channel selection for Zigbee and WiFi coexistance.

The Zigbee specification standards divide the 2.4 GHz ISM radio band into 16 Zigbee channels (i.e. distinct radio frequencies for Zigbee). For all Zigbee devices to be able to communicate, they must support the same Zigbee channel (i.e. Zigbee radio frequency) that is set on the Zigbee Coordinator as the channel to use for its Zigbee network. Not all Zigbee devices support all Zigbee channels. Channel support usually depends on the age of the hardware and firmware, as well as on the device’s power ratings.

The general recommendation is to only use channels 15, 20, or 25 in order to avoid interoperability problems with Zigbee devices. Not only because there is less chance of Wi-Fi networks interfering too much with the Zigbee network on other channels, but also because not all Zigbee devices support all channels. Some devices, for example, are limited to only being compatible with ZLL (Zigbee Light Link) channels. It is therefore especially not recommended to use Zigbee channels 11, 24, 25, or 26 on your Zigbee coordinator. These Zigbee channels are commonly only supported by relatively modern Zigbee hardware devices with newer Zigbee firmware. If using those channels, your coordinator may not be usable with older Zigbee devices.

Modifying the device type

As not all device manufacturers follow the Zigbee standard, at times a device can be incorrectly classified. For example, a switch could be classified as a light.

To correct the device type, also called domain, add the following to your configuration.yamlThe configuration.yaml file is the main configuration file for Home Assistant. It lists the integrations to be loaded and their specific configurations. In some cases, the configuration needs to be edited manually directly in the configuration.yaml file. Most integrations can be configured in the UI.[Learn more] and restart Home Assistant:

zha:
  device_config:
    84:71:27:ff:fe:93:17:24-1:    # format: {ieee}-{endpoint_id}
      type: "switch"              # corrected device type

{ieee} is the device hardware address which can be read from the Home Assistant UI when looking at Device info. From device info, you can find the {endpoint_id} by viewing the Zigbee device signature.

Services

Service zha.permit

To add new devices to the network, call the permit service on the zha domain. Do this by clicking the Service icon in Developer tools and typing zha.permit in the Service dropdown box. Next, follow the device instructions for adding, scanning or factory reset.

This service opens network for joining new devices.

Data Optional Description
duration yes For how long to allow new devices to join, default 60s
ieee yes The IEEE address of an existing device via which the new device is to be added

To join a new device using an install code (ZB3 devices) use the following data attributes (must use parameters only from the same group:

Data Parameter Group Description
src_ieee install_code The IEEE address of the joining ZB3 device. Use with install_code
install_code install_code Install Code of the joining device. Use with src_ieee
qr_code qr_code QR code containing IEEE and Install Code of the joining ZB3 device

Note

Currently qr_code supports QR Install Codes from:

  • Aqara
  • Bosch
  • Consciot
  • Embrighten

Service zha.remove

This service removes an existing device from the network. You can find the IEEE address of the device on the device card of Zigbee devices. An example of an IEEE address data parameter format is 00:0d::6f:00:05:7d:2d:34.

Data Optional Description
ieee no IEEE address of the device to remove

Service zha.set_lock_user_code

This service sets a lock code on a Zigbee lock.

Data Optional Description
code_slot no Which lock code slot to store the code. Ex. 1-32 will work for Kwikset 954
user_code no Code to set on the lock. Ex. Kwikset accepts numbers 4-8 digits in length

Service zha.clear_lock_user_code

This service clears a lock code from a Zigbee lock.

Data Optional Description
code_slot no Which lock code slot to clear

Service zha.enable_lock_user_code

This service enables a lock code on a Zigbee lock.

Data Optional Description
code_slot no Which lock code slot to enable

Service zha.disable_lock_user_code

This service disables a lock code on a Zigbee lock.

Data Optional Description
code_slot no Which lock code slot to disable

Adding devices

Tip! It is highly recommended that you read through the two segments under the troubleshooting section below about “Best practices to avoid pairing/connection difficulties” and “Zigbee interference avoidance and network range/coverage optimization” for general prerequisite knowledge and advice on how to achieve the best possible Zigbee network in your environment.

To add a new Zigbee device:

  1. Go to Settings > Devices & Services.
  2. Select the Zigbee Home Automation integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more]. Then, select Configure.
  3. To start a scan for new devices, on the bottom right corner of the screen, select Add device.
  4. Reset your Zigbee devices to factory default settings according to the device instructions provided by the manufacturer (e.g., turn on/off lights up to 10 times; switches usually have a reset button/pin). It might take a few seconds for the devices to appear. You can click on Show logs for more verbose output.
  5. Once the device is found, it will appear on that page and will be automatically added to your devices. You can optionally change its name and add it to an area (you can change this later). You can search again to add another device, or you can go back to the list of added devices.

Using router devices to add more devices

Most mains-powered devices, e.g., many always-powered wall plugs or light bulbs in your Zigbee network will automatically act as a Zigbee router device (sometimes also referred to as a Zigbee “signal repeater” or “range extender”).

Because Zigbee should use a wireless mesh network to be effective, you will need to add Zigbee router devices to increase the number of Zigbee devices that can be used in your Zigbee network, both in the total number of devices that can be added as well as the total range and coverage of the network. Some Zigbee router devices do a much better job at routing and repeating Zigbee signals and messages than some other devices. You should not have a setup where Zigbee router devices (e.g. light bulbs) are often powered-off. Zigbee router devices are meant to be always available.

All Zigbee coordinator firmware will only allow you to directly connect a certain amount of devices. That limit is set for two reasons; firstly, to not overload the Zigbee coordinator, and secondly, to encourage your Zigbee network to quickly begin to utilize a “mesh networking” topology instead of only a “star network” topology.

The total number of Zigbee devices that you can have on a Zigbee network depends on a few things. The Zigbee coordinator hardware and its firmware only play a larger role in Zigbee networks with a lot of devices. More important is the number of directly connected devices (“direct children”) versus the number of routers that are connected to your Zigbee coordinator. The Zigpy library, which the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] depends on, has an upper limit that is 32 direct children, but you can still have hundreds of Zigbee devices in total connected indirectly through routes via Zigbee router devices.

In this theoretical example, a CC2652-based Zigbee coordinator has three CC2530 Zigbee router devices for a total limit of 77 devices:

  • Coordinator: 32 Zigbee End devices - 3 routers = 29
  • Router one: + 16 devices
  • Router two: + 16 devices
  • Router three: + 16 devices
  • Total device limit = 77 devices

In practice, you will likely need to add a lot more Zigbee router devices than in this example in order to extend the coverage of the network to reach that many devices.

Zigbee groups and binding devices

ZHA supports Zigbee groups and binding devices to each other. These features can be used separately or combined. For example, binding a remote to a bulb or group has the benefit of faster response time and smoother control, as the remote directly controls the bound devices.

Zigbee group

A Zigbee group enables the grouping of multiple Zigbee lights, switches, and fans. This allows you to control those devices with only one command/entity.

Note

While using a native Zigbee group instead of Home Assistant’s Group integration can improve the visual responsiveness, the broadcast commands issued can flood the Zigbee network if issued repeatedly.

To create a Zigbee Group, press the “Configure” button on the ZHA integration config page. At the top, choose “Groups” and select “Create Group”. Set a group name and choose which devices to include in the group.

The group should consist of products of the same device type (e.g. all lights, switches, or fans), and at least two devices must be added to a Zigbee group before a group entity is created.

Zigbee binding and unbinding

Binding is an on-device feature for Zigbee devices. It provides a mechanism for attaching an endpoint of one Zigbee device to an endpoint of another Zigbee device or to a Zigbee group.

For example, binding a “target destination” Zigbee device like a remote to a Zigbee light bulb, switch or group of light bulbs allows direct control of the “target” device (light, switch, shade) from the “remote” Zigbee device, bypassing ZHA. This means that the remote can control the light bulb or group even when ZHA is not active.

Note that not all devices support binding. By default, ZHA binds remotes to the coordinator, so click events are forwarded to HA. As some remotes can only be bound to a single destination, you might need to unbind the remote from the coordinator before binding it to another device or group.

Zigbee backup and restore in ZHA

Zigbee Home Automation (ZHA) integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] now features Zigbee network backup, restore/recovery, and migrating between Zigbee coordinators. Backups are taken automatically. However, a single backup to a file for easy download can also be manually created from the configuration page under Network Settings.

After restoring a Home Assistant backup, you can re-configure ZHA and migrate to a new Zigbee Coordinator adapter without any loss of your settings or devices that were connected. This is helpful if your current radio fails or a new radio adapter type and model comes out that you may want to migrate to.

Within ZHA it is possible to use this backup and restore feature to migrate between some different radio types, if the respective radio library supports it. Currently, ZHA supports migrating the Zigbee network between different Zigbee Coordinator adapters based on chips from Silicon Labs, Texas Instruments, or ConBee/RaspBee if the backup was made from inside ZHA.

Migrating to a new Zigbee coordinator adapter inside ZHA

Follow this guide if you have a Zigbee Home Assistant (ZHA) network running and want to migrate from one Zigbee coordinator radio adapter to another Zigbee coordinator radio adapter.

Prerequisites

  • Your old Zigbee Coordinator radio adapter is used in the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] (not in deCONZ or MQTT).
  • It is of radio type ezsp (Silicon Labs EmberZnet), znp (Texas Instruments Z-Stack ZNP), or deCONZ (ConBee/RaspBee from dresden elektronik).

To migrate to a new Zigbee coordinator radio inside ZHA

  1. Go to Settings > Devices & Services and select the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more]. Then select Configure.
  2. Under Network settings, select Migrate radio.
  3. Reconfiguration of ZHA will start. Select Submit.
  4. Under Migrate or re-configure, select Migrate to a new radio.
  5. Migrate to a new radio will inform you that an automatic backup will be performed and that your old Zigbee coordinator radio will then be reset before the backup is automatically restored.
    • Select Submit.
  6. Unplug your old radio will inform you that your old Zigbee coordinator radio has been reset and that you can now plug in your new Zigbee coordinator radio adapter.
    • To avoid interference, use a USB extension cable.
    • Use a USB 2.0 port or a powered USB 2.0 hub and keep the Zigbee stick away from USB 3.0 devices.
    • You may now also choose to either unplug your old Zigbee coordinator radio adapter or keep your old radio plugged in.
    • If that radio was a combined Z-Wave and Zigbee radio, like the HUSBZB-1 adapter, then only the Zigbee radio part of it was reset. Confirm that the Zigbee Coordinator radio adapter is properly connected and select Submit.
  7. You now need to start the backup restore process.
    • Select your new Zigbee radio from the list of serial ports and select Next.
    • If your new radio does not appear or you need to reboot after plugging in new hardware, you can resume the migration after a reboot: under Network Settings, select Re-configure the current radio and choose your new radio.
  8. Under Network Formation, select Restore an automatic backup.
  9. Under Restore Automation Backup, choose the latest automatic backup and select Submit.
  10. If your radio requires overwriting the IEEE address, you will see a screen titled Overwrite Radio IEEE Address. Check the Permanently replace the radio IEEE address box and click Submit. Overwriting the IEEE address may take a while.
    • Your old Zigbee Coordinator radio and your new stick will now have the same Zigbee IEEE address (unique MAC address for the Zigbee device).
    • Selecting this option is required for the migration process to complete successfully.
    • From this point onwards, you should not operate the old stick in the same area unless you change the Zigbee IEEE address on it.
    • If you do not migrate the Zigbee IEEE address from your old Zigbee Coordinator radio, then you will have to re-join/re-pair many of your devices in order to keep them working.
  11. Finally, a Success! message should pop up with information that all options were successfully saved.
    • Select Finish to confirm.

The migration process is complete. However, be aware that you will not be able to control your existing Zigbee devices until the new coordinator fully joins the network. This process can take a few minutes. If some existing devices do not function after some time, try power-cycling them to allow them to re-join the network.

Troubleshooting

To help resolve any kinks or compatibility problems, report bugs as issues with debug logs. Please note the current limitations and follow the instructions in this troubleshooting section.

Limitations

Note that ZHA only supports connecting a single dedicated Zigbee Coordinator radio adapter or module with a single Zigbee network and that the Zigbee Coordinator cannot already be connected or used by any other application. Any devices that are or have previously been connected to another Zigbee implementation will also need to first be reset to their factory default settings before they can be paired/joined to ZHA, please see each device manufacturer’s documentation.

Any Zigbee device can only be connected to a single Zigbee Coordinator (only one Zigbee gateway). This is a limitation in the current (as well as previous) Zigbee protocol specifications, governed by the CSA (Connectivity Standards Alliance). As such, it is a limit that applies to all Zigbee implementations, not just the ZHA implementation.

Support for commissioning Zigbee 3.0 devices via “Install Code” or “QR Code” via the ‘zha.permit’ service has so far only been implemented for ‘ezsp’ (Silicon Labs EmberZNet) or ‘znp’ (Texas Instruments) radio type in ZHA. Other radio types are missing support in their respective radio libraries for zigpy or manufacturer’s firmware commands/APIs.

ZHA does currently not support devices that can only use the ZGP (“Zigbee Green Power”) profile which is used in a few batteryless self-powered or energy harvesting devices, (such as for example; Philips Hue Click, Philips Hue Tap, and some “Friends of Hue” partnership switches).

ZHA does not currently support devices that can only use the ZSE (“Zigbee Smart Energy”) profile, that is however due to the “Zigbee SE” specification not being part of the standard Zigbee 3.0 specification and thus not implemented in most of the Zigbee protocol stacks that are commonly available Zigbee Coordinator radio adapters and modules.

Knowing which devices are supported

Home Assistant’s ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] supports all standard Zigbee device types. It should be compatible with most Zigbee devices as long as they fully conform to the official ZCL (Zigbee Cluster Library) specifications defined by the CSA (Connectivity Standards Alliance, formerly the Zigbee Alliance). There is therefore no official compatibility list of devices that will work out-of-the-box with the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] Not all hardware manufacturers always fully comply with the standard specifications. Sometimes, they may also implement unique features. For this reason, some Zigbee devices pair/join fine with ZHA but then only show none or only a few entities in the integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more]. Developers can work around most such interoperability issues by adding conversion/translation code in custom device handlers. For more information, refer to the section below on How to add support for new and unsupported devices.

For clarification, normally only devices that do not fully conform to CSA’s ZCL specifications that will not present all standard attributes as entities for configuration in the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more]. Zigbee devices that only use the standard clusters and attributes that are Zigbee specifications set by the Connectivity Standards Alliance should not need custom device handlers.

Before continuing with this section: If a device does not join/pair at all, read the troubleshooting sections about how to avoid pairing/connection difficulties, interference avoidance, and network range/coverage optimization.

Tip to new Zigbee users: Checkout blakadder’s unofficial Zigbee Device Compatibility Repository. Anyone can help maintain the site by submitting device compatibility information to it. The repository contains independent community member’s reports or device-specific pairing tips for several home automation gateway/bridge/hub software, including open-source Zigbee implementations, such as ZHA, Zigbee2MQTT, and Tasmota (Zigbee2Tasmota).

How to add support for new and unsupported devices

If your Zigbee device pairs/joins successfully with the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] but does not show all of the expected entities:

  1. Try to re-pair/re-join the device several times.
  2. Checkout the troubleshooting section.
  3. Still not working? You may need a custom device handler. This handler will have exception handling code to work around device-specific issues.

For devices that do not follow the standard defined in the CSA’s ZCL (Zigbee Cluster Library), the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] relies on a project called “ZHA Device Handlers (also known as “zha-quirk”)”. It contains device-specific Python scripts called “quirks”. These scripts can resolve compliance and interoperability issues by implementing on-the-fly conversion of custom Zigbee configurations or by implementing manufacturer-specific features for specific devices.

People familiar with other Zigbee gateway solutions for home automation may know similar concepts of using custom Zigbee device handlers/converters for non-standard devices. For example, Zigbee2MQTT (and IoBroker) uses zigbee-herdsman converters and SmartThings Classics (Legacy) platform has Hub Connected Device Handlers.

If you do not want to develop such a “quirk” Python script yourself, you can submit a “device support request” as a new issue to the ZHA Device Handlers project repository on GitHub:

  1. Sign in to GitHub.
  2. Select New issue and follow the instructions.
  • New device support requests require the device signature + diagnostic information.
  • You may also need to actively help in further testing or provide additional information to the volunteering developers.

Note that submitting a new “device support request” does not guarantee that someone else will develop a custom “quirk” for ZHA. The project relies on volunteering developers. However, without “device support requests”, the developers may not be aware that your specific Zigbee device is not working correctly in ZHA.

Best practices to avoid pairing/connection difficulties

If you experience problems pairing a device, verify that you follow best practices to avoid pairing/connection issues:

  • Check that your setup and environment are optimized to avoid interference.
    • As interference avoidance is an extremely important topic on its own, please read and follow the tips in the separate section below about Zigbee interference avoidance and network range/coverage optimization.
  • Check that you have enough Zigbee router devices (also known as Zigbee signal repeaters or range extenders) and if you do not have any, invest and add some mains-powered devices that will work as Zigbee routers.
    • Aim to start out with mains-powered devices before adding battery-operated devices as a “weak” Zigbee network mesh (e.g., the device is too far from the Zigbee coordinator or a Zigbee router) may prevent some devices from being paired. Zigbee router devices are also needed to increase the maximum of devices that can be connected to your Zigbee mesh network.
    • Note that some Zigbee devices are not fully compatible with all brands of Zigbee router devices. Xiaomi/Aqara devices are for example known not to work with Zigbee router devices from Centralite, General Electrics, Iris, Ledvance/OSRAM, LIGHTIFY/Sylvania, Orvibo, PEQ, Securifi, and SmartThings/Samsung. Better results can usually be achieved by using mains-powered devices IKEA and Nue/3A Home or dedicated DIY routing devices based on Texas Instruments CC253x/CC26x2 and XBee Series 2/3 Zigbee radios.
  • If possible try to pair your Zigbee devices in their intended final location, (and not pair it next to the Zigbee coordinator and then need to move it after).
    • Pairing a Zigbee device next to the Zigbee coordinator and then moving it later can result in dropped/lost connections or other issues.
      • If the device you want to add is not brand new and as such never paired before then you always have to make sure to first manually reset the device to its factory default settings before you will be able to add/pair it.
  • Some battery-operated Zigbee devices are known to have problems with pairing if they have Low battery voltage.
    • Some people have reported replacing the battery on their newly received Xiaomi/Aqara devices solved pairing issues.
  • Be patient as the pairing of some Zigbee devices may require multiple attempts and you may sometimes need to try again and again.
    • Some devices, like example those from Xiaomi/Aqara, are known to not be 100% compliant with the standard Zigbee specifications and may therefore require many paring attempts over 10-20 minutes or longer.

Zigbee interference avoidance and network range/coverage optimization

Sources of interference for radios can lead to transmission/reception loss or connection problems and show symptoms such as errors/failures when sending and receiving Zigbee messages/signals that can cause significant degradation in performance or even prevent devices from communicating at all. Below are some basic but essential tips for getting a good setup starting point to achieve better signal quality, improved coverage, and extended range.

Following all these optimization tips below should significantly improve the reception of your Zigbee radio adapter. The below insights describe working around the well-known limitations of low-power/low-bandwidth 2.4 GHz digital radios. It can that way resolve or avoid many known issues caused by interference or poor placement of your Zigbee radio adapter or devices.

All electric devices/appliances, especially computers and computer peripherals, generate EMI/EMF/RMI (electromagnetic fields that cause electromagnetic interference (often called radio-frequency interference, also commonly called signal noise in layman’s terms), which can interfere with signals transmissions on the 2.4 GHz radio band frequency, and in practice partially degrade or even fully jam the wireless communication messages between your Zigbee adapter/devices.

For example, interference from USB 3.x ports, unshielded USB 3.x devices, and non-shielded USB 3.x peripheral cables are especially infamously known to affect 2.4 GHz radio reception for low-power/low-bandwidth devices. Therefore you should always place your Zigbee adapter far away as possible from any potential sources of EMI/EMI/RMI, preferably by using an adequately long shielded USB extension cable connected to a USB 2.0 port.

Zigbee also uses mesh networking topology, which means that most mains-powered devices are a “Zigbee Router” that can act as a signal repeater and range extended by transmitting data over long distances by passing data messages through the Zigbee network mesh of intermediate devices to reach more distant Zigbee devices. Thus to have a healthy Zigbee network, you need many Zigbee Router devices relatively close to each other in order to achieve good coverage and range.

Actions to optimize Zigbee Coordinator radio hardware

Common root causes of unreliable performance are often seen with outdated Zigbee Coordinator radio adapter hardware, limited by obsolete chips, bad antenna designs, or old/buggy firmware. You can improve most Zigbee setups by using a good Zigbee Coordinator radio adapter and maintaining it.

  • Buy and use a supported Zigbee Coordinator USB adapter based on newer/modern chip hardware.

    • Consider a Zigbee Coordinator USB adapter with an external antenna for more flexibility.
  • Update to a later version of Zigbee Coordinator firmware on the existing radio adapter.

    • Most manufacturers usually provide straightforward guides for updating the firmware.
  • Try different physical placement and orientations of the Zigbee Coordinator and its antenna.

    • Optimal placement of the Zigbee adapter is close to the middle of the house as possible.
    • Try placing Zigbee Coordinator at some distance away from walls, ceilings, and floors.
    • Try different orientations of the Zigbee Coordinator adapter or its antenna.

While using an older Zigbee Coordinator radio adapter hardware might work, using obsolete hardware and/or old firmware can prevent reliable operation. It is also generally a good idea to upgrade Zigbee Coordinator firmware before troubleshooting any further if and when run into problems with devices.

Actions to avoid or workaround EMI/EMF/RMI interference

Since all Zigbee Coordinator radio adapters are very sensitive/susceptible to all types of EMI/EMF/RMI you should always try to optimize the placement of the Zigbee Coordinator and avoid known sources of interference.

  • Use a long USB extension cable and place Zigbee Coordinator away from interference and obstacles.

    • Ensure the USB extension cable is adequately shielded (thicker cables usually have better shielding).
    • Place Zigbee Coordinator away from electrical wires/cables, power supplies, and household appliances.
    • Extension cables also makes it easier to try different orientations of the adapter/antenna.
  • Avoid USB 3.0 ports/computers/peripherals as they are known culprits of RFI/EMI/EMF disruption. (See Ref. 1 and 2).

    • Make sure to only connect the Zigbee USB adapter to a USB 2.0 port (and not to a USB 3.x port).
    • If a computer only has USB 3.x ports then buy and connect Zigbee Coordinator via a powered USB 2.0 hub.
  • Shield any unshielded computers/peripherals/devices by adding all-metal enclosures/chassis/casings.

    • Use shielded USB cables for all external peripherals/devices, especially USB 3.x peripherals.
    • Be aware that metal casings can decrease the performance of an internal/built-in Zigbee Coordinator.
  • Avoid Wi-Fi Routers and Wi-Fi Access Points, alternatively change the Wi-Fi channel or Zigbee channel.

    • Place your Zigbee Coordinator away from any Wi-Fi access points and all other sources of WiFi.
    • Wi-Fi frequency ranges can overlap with Zigbee, see the section above on defining Zigbee channel use.

Zigbee network visualization in ZHA UI

The ZHA configuration UI has a tab to visualize device links in your Zigbee network topology.

The network visualization can help to identify devices with poor connection (that is, low values on the link). You will need to look at the ZHA logs to find more detailed information required for troubleshooting.

The visualization shows multi-hop connections between your paired devices and their reported cumulative values of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indication (LQI).

The exact method in which these values are reported depends on the Zigbee network stack used on each device. LQI values can be modified at each step as the message propagates through the mesh networking matrix.

How to interpret RSSI and LQI values

Interpreting RSSI and LQI values is complex. Unless you are a Zigbee specialist yourself or are guided by one, please ignore those values. They can be misleading. If you delve into this, it is important to understand not to judge RSSI or LQI values on their own. When troubleshooting Zigbee messages that are being dropped, you must interpret the combination of both RSSI and LQI.

RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) values are an indicator value of the raw signal strength between two devices. RSSI values are negative numbers in -dBm format (0 to -100 power ratio in decibels of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt). Lower negative values indicate less interference and a good signal. RSSI information is only between the endpoint device and the first hop from that device. As such, it may not necessarily show signal strength to the Zigbee Coordinator but instead could be showing signal strength to the nearest Zigbee Router device.

  • Generally, anything -60 and above (meaning -50, -40, etc.) in RSSI should be considered a strong signal (not losing messages).
  • Anything at -80 and below (meaning -85, -90, etc.) should be considered a noise environment and you risk losing messages.

LQI (Link Quality Index) values can be hard to interpret for Zigbee. This is because the Zigbee specifications and the (IEEE 802.15.4 specification) do not standardize how to perform LQI measurements. LQI values are shown as positive numbers on a scale. But because the value provided by the Zigbee devices is not measured using unified standards from all device manufacturers and Zigbee stacks, the values can not always be trusted. For example, Zigbee devices based on Silicon Labs EmberZNet stack use positive display numbers for LQI, where higher is better and lower is worse. The Texas Instruments Z-Stack computes LQI for each received packet from the raw “received signal strength index” (RSSI) by linearly scaling it between the minimum and maximum defined RF power levels for the radio that more or less just provides an LQI value that, based on the strength of the received signal. This can be misleading in case the user has a noisy environment with interference within the same frequency range (as the RSSI value may be shown as increased even though the true link quality decreases). Other manufacturers and Zigbee stacks measure and calculate LQI values in another way.

  • In theory, an LQI value of 255 means a zero error rate in theory. In general, a positive high LQI value is better and a lower LQI value is worse. However, depending on your devices, that might not be the reality.

Reporting issues

For more details on where and how to report issues, please refer to the Reporting issues page.

When reporting potential bugs related to the ZHA integration on the issues trackers, please always provide the following ZHA/Zigbee-specific information in addition to the information requested by the standard issue template:

  1. Debug logs for the issue, see debug logging.
  2. Exact model and firmware of the Zigbee radio (Zigbee Coordinator adapter) being used.
  3. If the issue is related to a specific Zigbee device, provide both the Zigbee Device Signature and the Diagnostics information.
  • Both the Zigbee Device Signature and the Diagnostics information can be found under Settings > Devices & Services. Select the Zigbee Home Automation integration. Then, select Configure > Devices (pick your device). Select Zigbee Device Signature and Download Diagnostics, respectively.

Note: Please also make sure you give it your best effort to follow the recommended best practices for avoiding both pairing/connection difficulties and Zigbee interference, (which helps free up time for developers).

Debug logging

To enable debug logging for the ZHA integrationIntegrations connect and integrate Home Assistant with your devices, services, and more. [Learn more] and radio libraries, add the following logger configuration to configuration.yamlThe configuration.yaml file is the main configuration file for Home Assistant. It lists the integrations to be loaded and their specific configurations. In some cases, the configuration needs to be edited manually directly in the configuration.yaml file. Most integrations can be configured in the UI.[Learn more]:

logger:
  default: info
  logs:
    homeassistant.core: debug
    homeassistant.components.zha: debug
    bellows.zigbee.application: debug
    bellows.ezsp: debug
    zigpy: debug
    zigpy_deconz.zigbee.application: debug
    zigpy_deconz.api: debug
    zigpy_xbee.zigbee.application: debug
    zigpy_xbee.api: debug
    zigpy_zigate: debug
    zigpy_znp: debug
    zhaquirks: debug

Add Philips Hue bulbs that have previously been added to another bridge

Philips Hue bulbs/lights that have previously been paired/added to another bridge/gateway will not show up during search in ZHA to pair/add a Zigbee device. That is because you have to first manually restore your bulbs/lights back to their factory default settings first, and just removing them from your old bridge/gateway is not enough to do so. Instead to achieve a proper device factory reset you can use one of these methods below.

You can use a Philips Hue Dimmer Switch or Lutron Connected Bulb Remote to factory-reset your bulbs. For this to work, the remote does not have to be paired with your previous bridge. Also, make sure there are no other Hue bulbs nearby that have just been turned on when using this method. Otherwise, you risk resetting them too.

Newer Philips Hue bulbs you can reset via Bluetooth. The official Android app can connect to one of these bulbs even if it is already paired to a bridge. Then, you can reset the bulb in the app.

Philips Hue Dimmer Switch

  1. Turn on your Hue bulb/light you want to reset. (It is important that the bulb has just been turned).
  2. Hold the Philips Hue Dimmer Switch near your bulb (closer than 10 centimeters / 4 inches).
  3. Press and hold the (I)/(ON) and (O)/(OFF) buttons on the Philips Hue Dimmer Switch. The bulb should start blinking in 10-20 seconds. The bulb will blink, then turn off, then turn on. You can now release the dimmer buttons.
  4. Your bulb is now factor reset and ready for pairing. A green light on the top left of the dimmer remote indicates that your bulb has been successfully reset to factory default settings.

Note: If you are unable to reset the bulb, remove it from the Hue Bridge and retry the procedure.

Lutron Connected Bulb Remote

  1. Turn on your Hue bulb/light you want to reset. (It is important that the bulb has just been turned).
  2. Hold the Dimmer Switch near your bulb (closer than 10 centimeters / 4 inches)
  3. Press and hold the 2nd (up arrow) and 4th (light off) buttons on the Lutron Connected Bulb Remote simultaneously for about 10 seconds continuously until your bulb starts to blink and the green LED on the remote should also start blink slowly.
  4. Continue to hold both buttons on the remote until the green LED on it stops blinking. Your bulb should also have stopped blinking and eventually turn on again indicating that your bulb has been successfully reset to factory default settings.

hue-thief

Follow the instructions on https://github.com/vanviegen/hue-thief/ (EZSP-based Zigbee USB stick required)

ZHA Start up issue with Home Assistant or Home Assistant Container

On Linux hosts ZHA can fail to start during HA startup or restarts because the Zigbee USB device is being claimed by the host’s modemmanager service. To fix this disable the modemmanager on the host system.

To remove modemmanager from a Debian/Ubuntu host run this command:

sudo apt-get purge modemmanager

Can’t connect to USB device and using Docker

If you are using Docker and can’t connect, you most likely need to forward your device from the host machine to the Docker instance. This can be achieved by adding the device mapping to the end of the startup string or ideally using Docker compose.

Docker Compose

Install Docker-Compose for your platform (Linux - sudo apt-get install docker-compose).

Create a docker-compose.yml with the following data:

version: '2'
services:
  homeassistant:
    # customizable name
    container_name: home-assistant

    # must be image for your platform, this is the rpi3 variant
    image: homeassistant/raspberrypi3-homeassistant
    volumes:
      - <DIRECTORY HOLDING HOME ASSISTANT CONFIG FILES>:/config
      - /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro
    devices:
      # your usb device forwarding to the docker image
      - /dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0
    restart: always
    network_mode: host

EZSP error and other log messages

NCP entered failed state

When you see NCP entered failed state. Requesting APP controller restart in logs during normal operation, it indicates a drop in communication between ZHA and the serial interface of the Silabs EmberZNet Zigbee Coordinator.

The EZSP (EmberZNet Serial Protocol) interface used by Silicon Labs EmberZNet Zigbee Coordinator adapters requires a stable connection to the serial port; therefore, it is not recommended to use a connection over Wi-Fi, WAN, VPN, etc.